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Table 2 Characteristics of study population and values of noninvasive fibrosis marker panelsa.

From: Validation of the FIB4 index in a Japanese nonalcoholic fatty liver disease population

  Total (n = 576) Fibrosis stage 0-2 (n = 512) Fibrosis stage 3-4 (n = 64) p-value b
Age (yr) 52.3 ± 15.4 51.2 ± 15.5 62.0 ± 10.1 < 0.0001
Gender (female) 280 (49%) 235 (46%) 45 (70%) 0.0003
BMI (kg/m 2 ) 27.9 ± 4.9 27.8 ± 4.9 28.6 ± 4.8 0.2138
Obesity (BMI > 25) 418 (73%) 369 (72%) 49 (77%) 0.5524
Hypertension (yes) 184 (32%) 150 (29%) 34 (53%) 0.0062
Type 2 diabetes (yes) 241 (42%) 199 (39%) 42 (66%) 0.0001
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.6 ± 2.0 14.7 ± 2.0 13.7 ± 2.0 0.0001
Platelet count (×10 9 /L) 227 ± 67 235 ± 64 162 ± 52 < 0.0001
AST (IU/L) 43 (30-67) 41 (29-64) 61 (47-77) < 0.0001
ALT (IU/L) 69 (43-112) 69 (43-69) 62 (46-94) 0.5074
AST/ALT ratio 0.65 (0.52-0.82) 0.63 (0.51-0.78) 0.98 (0.73-1.21) < 0.0001
GGT (IU/L) 60 (39-99) (n = 572) 57 (36-92) (n = 508) 84 (59-128) < 0.0001
Albumin (g/dL) 4.4 ± 0.4 4.4 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.4 < 0.0001
Cholinesterase (IU/L) 380 (330-433) (n = 527) 385 (337-439) (n = 466) 297 (244-367) (n = 61) < 0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 209 ± 40 (n = 467) 210 ± 39 (n = 409) 198 ± 42 (n = 58) 0.0484
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 147 (107-207) (n = 566) 150 (109-212) (n = 502) 131 (95-184) (n = 64) 0.0364
HDL-C (mg/dL) 50 ± 17 (n = 548) 50 ± 17 (n = 487) 51 ± 13 (n = 61) 0.7516
LDL-C (mg/dL) 128 ± 33 (n = 405) 129 ± 32 (n = 363) 120 ± 42 (n = 42) 0.1666
Ferritin (ng/mL) 173 (92-300) 169 (91-292) 216 (128-349) 0.0627
FPG (mg/dL) 103 (94-122) (n = 524) 103 (94-119) (n = 462) 111 (95-138) (n = 62) 0.0166
IRI (μU/mL) 11.6 (7.8-18.4) 11.3 (7.5-17.4) 17.3 (11.3-26.2) < 0.0001
FIB4 index 1.23 (0.77-2.02) 1.13 (0.71-1.79) 3.17 (1.88-4.25) < 0.0001
AST/ALT ratio (AAR) 0.65 (0.52-0.82) 0.63 (0.51-0.78) 0.98 (0.73-1.21) < 0.0001
AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) 0.61 (0.40-0.98) 0.57 (0.38-0.92) 1.22 (0.86-1.79) < 0.0001
Age-platelet index (AP index) 4 (2-6) 3 (2-5) 7 (5-8) < 0.0001
NAFLD fibrosis score -1.82 (-3.04 to -0.58) -2.07 (-3.25 to -0.95) 0.25 (-0.60-1.06) < 0.0001
BARD score     < 0.0001
   0 144 (25%) 138 (27%) 6 (9%)  
   1 201 (35%) 194 (38%) 7 (11%)  
   2 112 (19%) 99 (19%) 13 (20%)  
   3 88 (15%) 62 (12%) 26 (41%)  
   4 31 (5%) 19 (4%) 12 (19%)  
N score     < 0.0001
   0 135 (23%) 135 (26%) 0 (0%)  
   1 170 (30%) 157 (31%) 13 (20%)  
   2 118 (20%) 96 (19%) 22 (34%)  
   3 99 (17%) 82 (16%) 17 (27%)  
   4 54 (9%) 42 (8%) 12 (19%)  
  1. BMI, body mass index; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; GGT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; and IRI, immuno-reactive insulin. a Values are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), counts (%), as appropriate. bValues from univariate ordinal logistic regression, Mann-Whitney, or χ2 analysis, as appropriate.