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Table 1 The characteristics of included trials comparing the VSC with the SAC

From: Does the variable-stiffness colonoscope makes colonoscopy easier? A meta-analysis of the efficacy of the variable stiffness colonoscope compared with the standard adult colonoscope

study, year, country cecal intubation rate cecal intubation time sedation dose Pain score ancillary maneuvers number of patient (n) colonoscope types endoscopists' experience level
Akira Horiuchi 2004, Japan PVSC:95% (117/123) SAC:91% (114/125) P=0.075 Mean(SD),min PVSC:6.8(5.2) SAC:7.5(4.8) P=0.082 Mean, Midazolam,mg PVSC:6.5 SAC:7.3 P=0.76 not stated Position changes made PVSC:0% SAC:5% P<0.0001 Manual pressure used PVSC:66% SAC:69% P=0.55 PVSC, small-caliber PVSC, SAC 374 Experienced
Al-Shurieki SH 2005,USA PVSC:95.8% (115/120) SAC:96.6% (114/118) P=1.0 Mean(SD),min PVSC:7.8(5.67) SAC:7.9(3.77) P=0.28 Mean, Meperidine,mg PVSC:56(15) SAC:60(15) P=0.06 Midazolam,mg PVSC:2.2(0.79) SAC:2.5(0.78) P=0.02 Median patient experience scale PVSC:1 SAC:83% SAC:1 P=0.6 position change made PVSC:76% P=0.2 manual pressure used PVSC:29% SAC:32% P=0.64 238 PVSC,SAC Experienced
Brooker JC 2000,UK VSC:96.5% (55/57) SAC:90.7 (39/43) P=n.s. Median(range),min VSC:6min32sec(1 min50sec-19min35sec) SAC:10min35sec(3min45sec-22min35sec) P=0.0005 Median(range) Pethidine,mg VSC:25(0–75) SCA:37.5(0–100)SCA:1.5(0–2.5) Median Pain Score rated by patients VSC:7(0–82) SAC:24(0–85) P=0.0081 not stated 100 VSC,SAC Experienced
Darlus Sorbi 2001,USA VSC:100% (25/25) SAC:88% (22/25) P=0.11 Mean ± SEM VSC:10.6 ± 1.6SAC:10.6 ± 1.7 P=0.97 Mean ± SEM Meperidine,mg VSC:68 ± 7 SAC:67 ± 5 P=0.68 Midazolam,mg VSC:4.3 ± 0.6 SAC:4.1 ± 0.3 P=0.84 Mean ± SEM Pain score reported by patients VSC:1.3 ± 0.4 SAC:1.8 ± 0.6 P=0.64 Mean ± SEM positon changes VSC:0.4 ± 0.1 SAC:1.2 ± 0.4 P=0.46 manual pressure used VSC:0.3 ± 0.1 SAC:1.1 ± 0.4 P=0.05 50 VSC,SAC limited experienced
Ichiro Yoshikawa 2002,Japan experienced VSC:99% (103/104) SAC:98% (101/103) P=n.s. Limited experience VSC:98% (127/129) SAC:95 (125/131) P=n.s. experienced VSC:9.8 ± 6.6 SAC:10.6 ± 7.2 P=n.s. Limited experience VSC:15.7 ± 9.7 SAC:18.5 ± 12.1 P<0.05 not stated Mean(SD) Pain score rated by patients experienced VSC:1.4 ± 1.1 SAC:1.9 ± 1.1 P<0.01 limited experience VSC:1.7 ± 1.0 SAC:2.1 ± 1.2 P<0.01 Manual pressure used experienced VSC:10% SAC:15% P=n.s. Limited experience VSC:35% SAC:45% P=n.s. 467 VSC,SAC experienced, limited experience
Lee WH 2007,China VSC:97% (108/111) SAC:93% (102/110)P=0.28 Mean ± SD VSC:12.4 ± 6.8 SAC:13.2 ± 11.7 P=0.55 Mean(SD) Propofol,mg/kg VSC:0.75 ± 0.65 SAC:0.93 ± 0.62 P=0.02 Mean(SD) Pain score rated by patients VSC:4.6(2.7) SAC:5.9(2.5) P=0.589 Position change made VSC:23% SAC:34% P=0.01 Manual pressure used VSC:23% SAC:37% P=0.08 335 VSC,SAC Experienced
Shumaker DA 2002,USA PVSC:94.3% (115/122) SAC:89.8% (114/12) P=0.099 mean(SD) PVSC:9.4(6.8) SAC:7.9(4.5) P=0.089 Mean(SD) Meperidine,mg PVSC:73(23) SAC:77(25) P=0.168 Fentanyl,mg PVSC:93(35) SAC:93(26) P=0.039 Midazolam,mg PVSC:2.9(1.0) SAC:3.0(1.0) P=0.081 Mean(SD) Pain score rated by patients PVSC:3.9(3.2) SAC:4.1(3.0) P=0.589 position change PVSC:33% SAC:33% P=0.96 manual pressure used PVSC:58% SAC:42% P=0.024 363 PVSC,SAC,pediatric colonoscope Experienced
Sola-Vera J 2011, Spain VSC:92.9% (52/56) SAC:90.7% (49/54) P=0.7 Mean(SD) VSC:6.14(3.5) SAC:7.7(3.8) P=0.035 Mean(SD) Propofol, mg VSC:155.1 ± 83.3 SAC:176.2 ± 91.2 P=0.2 Fentanyl,mg VSC:0.11 ± 0.03 SAC:0.13 ± 0.04 P=0.06 Midazolam, mg VSC:1.3 ± 0.5 SAC:1.1 ± 0.7 P=0.1 Mean(SD) Pain rated by patients VSC:2.4 ± 4.8 SAC:2.3 ± 4.4 P=0.9 Manual pressure used VSC:44.6% SAC:44.4% P=1.0 position change VSC:12.5% SAC:33.3% P=0.012 124 VSC,SAC Experienced