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Table 2 Odds of UTIs or of Pyelonephritis occurring at least one or at least five years before diagnosis

From: An increased risk of urinary tract infection precedes development of primary biliary cirrhosis

   Matched controls. Chronic liver disease controls
Exposure Case (%) Control (%) OR (CI) Adjusted OR (CI) Control (%) OR (CI) Adjusted OR (CI)
UTI > 1 year 229 (28.63) 1737 (21.74) 1.50 (1.26-1.78) 1.49 (1.25-1.77) 2044 (16.84) 1.98 (1.69-2.33) 1.53 (0.92-2.55)
UTI > 5 years 150 (18.75) 1,095 (13.70) 1.52 (1.24-1.85) 1.50 (1.23-1.84) 1281 (10.55) 1.96 (1.62-2.36) 2.26 (1.28-3.98)
Pyelonephritis > 1 year 14 (1.75) 79 (0.99) 1.79 (1.01-3.19) 1.83 (1.03-3.26) 116 (0.96) 2.15 (1.06-3.23) 2.35 (0.54-10.24)
Pyelonephritis > 5 years 10 (1.25) 66 (0.83) 1.55 (0.79-3.05) 1.55 (0.79-3.05) 85 (0.70) 1.79 (0.93-3.47) 5.77 (1.15-29.08)
  1. The adjusted models are adjusted for diabetes in the comparison to matched controls, and age gender and diabetes in the comparison to chronic liver disease controls.