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Table 5 Risk factors for PVT according to age and gender

From: High Incidence of Hepatitis B Infection-Associated Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Southeast Asian Patients with Portal Vein Thrombosis

Risk factors* All patients Age range (years) Gender
   <20 20-39 40-60 >60 Male Female
  N (%)
194 (100)
N (%)
13 (6.7)
N (%)
36 (18.6)
N (%)
81 (41.8)
N (%)
64 (33)
N (%)
126 (65)
N (%)
68 (35.1)
Cirrhosis 98 (50.5) 1 (7.7) 6 (16.7) 52 (64.2) 39 (60.9) 78 (61.9) 20 (29.4)
Malignancy 126 (65) 1 (7.7) 14 (38.9) 56 (69.1) 55 (86) 94 (74.6) 32 (47.1)
Abdominal intervention 15 (7.7) 4 (30.8) 3 (8.3) 6 (7.4) 2 (3.1) 6 (4.8) 9 (13.2)
Abdominal inflammation or infection 18 (9.3) 1 (7.7) 5 (13.9) 7 (8.6) 5 (7.8) 7 (5.6) 8 (11.8)
BM disorders, protein S deficiency, and APS 11 (5.7) 1 (7.7) 3 (8.3) 5 (6.2) 2 (3.1) 5 (4) 6 (8.8)
Oral contraceptive pills 4 (2) 0 (0) 4 (11.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (5.9)
Others 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (5.6) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.8) 1 (1.5)
Idiopathic 18 (9.3) 6 (46.2) 8 (22.2) 3 (3.7) 1 (1.6) 7 (5.6) 11 (16.2)
  1. N, number of cases; BM, bone marrow; APS, anti-phospholipid syndrome
  2. *Some patients had more than one risk factor.