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Table 6 Association of symptom-defined GERD with BMI and waist-to-hip ratio in participants who underwent a physical examination (20% sub-sample, n = 3214).

From: A population-based survey of the epidemiology of symptom-defined gastroesophageal reflux disease: the Systematic Investigation of Gastrointestinal Diseases in China

  With symptom-defined GERDa
(n = 110)
n (%)
Without symptom-defined GERDa
(n = 3104)
n (%)
Univariate OR
(95% CI)
Multivariate ORb
(95% CI)
BMI (kg/m2)c     
<18.5 7 (6.4) 270 (8.7) 0.83 (0.37-1.85) 1.01 (0.45-2.29)
18.5-22.9 47 (42.7) 1504 (48.5) 1.00 1.00
23.0-27.4 41 (37.3) 1042 (33.6) 1.26 (0.82-1.93) 1.07 (0.68-1.68)
≥27.5 15 (13.6) 287 (9.2) 1.67 (0.92-3.03) 1.27 (0.65-2.46)
Waist-to-hip ratio     
Men: <0.90;
women: <0.83
56 (50.9) 1801 (58.0) 0.86 (0.55-1.35) 1.10 (0.68-1.79)
Men: 0.90-0.95;
women: 0.83-0.90
31 (28.2) 859 (27.7) 1.00 1.00
Men: >0.95;
women: >0.90
23 (20.9) 414 (13.3) 1.54 (0.89-2.67) 1.42 (0.79-2.53)
  1. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; OR, odds ratio; RDQ, Reflux Disease Questionnaire.
  2. aDefined as mild symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occurring on at least 2 days a week (RDQ item frequency score ≥3 for a severity score of ≥2), or moderate-to-severe symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occurring on at least 1 day a week (RDQ item frequency score ≥2 for a severity score ≥3).
  3. bAdjusted by age, sex and all variables in the table.
  4. cBMI ranges are appropriate for the Asian population (underweight: < 18.5 kg/m2; normal: 18.5-22.9 kg/m2; overweight: 23.0-27.4 kg/m2; obese: ≥27.5 kg/m2) [48].
  5. NOTE: BMI data were missing for 1 participant, and waist-to-hip ratio data were missing for 30 participants.