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Table 5 Characteristics of participants with and without symptom-defined GERD, and their association with symptom-defined GERD.

From: A population-based survey of the epidemiology of symptom-defined gastroesophageal reflux disease: the Systematic Investigation of Gastrointestinal Diseases in China

  With symptom-defined GERDa
(n = 496)
n (%)
Without symptom-defined GERDa (n = 15 582)
n (%)
Univariate OR
(95% CI)
Multivariate ORb
(95% CI)
Environment     
Urban 192 (38.7) 7880 (50.6) 1.00 1.00
Rural 304 (61.3) 7702 (49.4) 1.62 (1.35-1.95) 1.40 (1.13-1.72)
Sex     
Female 282 (56.9) 8108 (52.0) 1.00 1.00
Male 214 (43.1) 7474 (48.0) 0.82 (0.69-0.99) 1.00 (0.77-1.29)
Age (years)     
18-29 48 (9.7) 3632 (23.3) 0.49 (0.34-0.69) 0.67 (0.46-0.97)
30-39 97 (19.6) 3578 (23.0) 1.00 1.00
40-49 129 (26.0) 3683 (23.6) 1.29 (0.99-1.69) 1.11 (0.84-1.47)
50-59 113 (22.8) 2355 (15.1) 1.77 (1.34-2.33) 1.20 (0.89-1.62)
60-69 59 (11.9) 1444 (9.3) 1.51 (1.08-2.09) 0.82 (0.57-1.18)
70-80 50 (10.1) 890 (5.7) 2.07 (1.46-2.94) 0.85 (0.57-1.27)
BMI (kg/m 2 ) c     
<18.5 44 (8.9) 1436 (9.2) 1.10 (0.79-1.53) 1.04 (0.73-1.48)
18.5-22.9 209 (42.1) 7512 (48.2) 1.00 1.00
23.0-27.4 181 (36.5) 5326 (34.2) 1.22 (1.00-1.50) 1.14 (0.92-1.41)
≥27.5 58 (11.7) 1244 (8.0) 1.68 (1.25-2.26) 1.32 (0.97-1.80)
Education     
None/primary school 183 (36.9) 2999 (19.2) 1.00 1.00
Secondary/high school 255 (51.4) 9675 (62.1) 0.43 (0.36-0.52) 0.62 (0.49-0.79)
College graduates or beyond 58 (11.7) 2906 (18.6) 0.33 (0.24-0.44) 0.69 (0.45-1.05)
Occupation     
Office worker 96 (19.4) 4116 (26.4) 1.00 1.00
Manual worker 400 (80.6) 11 445 (73.4) 1.50 (1.20-1.88) 0.88 (0.67-1.17)
Total monthly family income (yuan) d     
≤1999 325 (65.5) 8490 (54.5) 1.00 1.00
2000-4999 139 (28.0) 5824 (37.4) 0.62 (0.51-0.76) 0.83 (0.67-1.04)
≥5000 31 (6.3) 1228 (7.9) 0.66 (0.45-0.96) 0.92 (0.61-1.39)
Smoking status     
Never smoker 355 (71.6) 10 875 (69.8) 1.00 1.00
Current smoker 122 (24.6) 4309 (27.7) 0.87 (0.70-1.07) 0.80 (0.60-1.06)
Ex-smoker 19 (3.8) 395 (2.5) 1.47 (0.92-2.36) 0.95 (0.56-1.61)
Alcohol consumption e     
No 393 (79.2) 12 420 (79.7) 1.00 1.00
Yes 103 (20.8) 3159 (20.3) 1.03 (0.83-1.28) 1.31 (1.00-1.71)
Frequency of recreational exercise     
Daily 350 (70.6) 10 009 (64.2) 1.00 1.00
At least weekly but less than daily 45 (9.1) 2149 (13.8) 0.60 (0.44-0.82) 0.68 (0.49-0.94)
Less than weekly 33 (6.7) 1330 (8.5) 0.71 (0.49-1.02) 0.87 (0.60-1.27)
Never 65 (13.1) 2066 (13.3) 0.90 (0.69-1.18) 0.81 (0.61-1.07)
Self-reported health status     
Very good 11 (2.2) 1759 (11.3) 1.00 1.00
Good 110 (22.2) 7471 (47.9) 2.35 (1.26-4.39) 2.33 (1.21-4.47)
Moderate 245 (49.4) 5558 (35.7) 7.05 (3.84-12.93) 6.43 (3.39-12.22)
Poor 121 (24.4) 741 (4.8) 26.11 (14.00-48.69) 20.10 (10.33-39.13)
Very poor 8 (1.6) 50 (0.3) 25.59 (9.86-66.37) 22.47 (8.34-60.52)
Family history of GI diseases     
No 392 (79.0) 14 252 (91.5) 1.00 1.00
Yes 104 (21.0) 1323 (8.5) 2.86 (2.29-3.57) 2.59 (2.05-3.28)
  1. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; GI, gastrointestinal; OR, odds ratio; RDQ, Reflux Disease Questionnaire.
  2. aDefined as mild symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occurring on at least 2 days a week (RDQ item frequency score ≥3 for a severity score of ≥2), or moderate-to-severe symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occurring on at least 1 day a week (RDQ item frequency score ≥2 for a severity score ≥3).
  3. bAdjusted by all variables in the table.
  4. cBMI ranges are appropriate for the Asian population (underweight: < 18.5 kg/m2; normal: 18.5-22.9 kg/m2; overweight: 23.0-27.4 kg/m2; obese: ≥27.5 kg/m2) [48].
  5. dAverage yearly income in China in 2007: 24 932 yuan (~$3300) [42].
  6. eDefined as alcohol consumed on at least four occasions per month.
  7. NOTE: all data were generated from the general information questionnaire; numbers may not add up exactly where individual participants have refused to answer specific questions.