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Table 2 Seasonal distribution of peptic ulcer: χ2 test for goodness of fit.

From: Seasonal pattern of peptic ulcer hospitalizations: analysis of the hospital discharge data of the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy

   winter n°(%) spring n°(%) summer n°(%) autumn n°(%) Χ2 p Difference between subgroups
Total of sample   26,848 6,831 (25.4) 6,876 (25.6) 6,249 (23.3) 6,892 (25.7) 42.88 <0.001   
Gender Women 10,053 2,483 (24.7) 2,656 (26.4) 2,381 (23.7) 2,533 (25.2) 15.59 0.002 t = 10.10 p = 0.022
  Men 16,795 4,348 (25.9) 4,220 (25.1) 3,868 (23.0) 4,359 (26.0) 37.58 <0.001   
Age subgroups <65 yrs 7,151 1,754 (24.5) 1,807 (25.3) 1,680 (23.5) 1,910 (26.7) 15.71 0.001 t = 16.62 p = 0.011
  65-74 yrs 8,849 2,358 (26.6) 2,208 (25.0) 2,047 (23.1) 2,236 (25.3) 22.21 <0.001   
  ≥ 75 yrs 10,848 2,719 (25.1) 2,861 (26.4) 2,522 (23.2) 2,746 (25.3) 21.94 <0.001   
Final outcome Fatal 1,290 358 (27.8) 326 (25.3) 317 (24.6) 289 (22.4) 7.52 n.s. t = 9.51 p = 0.03
  Non fatal 25,558 6,473 (25.3) 6,550 (25.6) 5,932 (23.2) 6,603 (25.8) 45.01 <0.001   
With hemorrhage   12,682 3,247 (25.6) 3,172 (25.0) 2,970 (23.4) 3,293 (26.0) 19.26 <0.001   
With perforation   2,541 596 (23.5) 688 (27.1) 593 (23.3) 664 (26.1) 10.92 0.013   
Gastric ulcer Total 976 242 (24.8) 242 (24.8) 212 (21.7) 280 (28.7) 9.54 0.024   
  Acute 734 181 (24.7) 179 (24.4) 164 (22.3) 210 (28.6) 6.07 n.s. t = 0.758 p = n.s.
  Chronic 242 61 (25.2) 63 (26.0) 48 (19.8) 70 (28.9) 4.18 n.s.   
Duodenal ulcer Total 24,105 6,075 (25.2) 6,180 (25.6) 5,636 (23.4) 6,214 (25.8) 35.44 <0.001   
  Acute 12,180 3,038 (24.9) 3,136 (25.7) 2,866 (23.5) 3,140 (25.8) 16.22 0.001 t = 30.37 p < 0.001
  Chronic 7,415 1,594 (21.5) 2,004 (27.0) 1,814 (24.5) 2,003 (27.0) 61.47 <0.001   
Peptic ulcer, site unspecified Total 2,795 768 (27.5) 711 (25.4) 622 (22.3) 694 (24.8) 15.56 0.002   
  Acute 359 91 (25.3) 85 (23.7) 86 (24.0) 97 (27.0) 1.04 n.s. t = 1.788 p = n.s.
  Chronic 2,383 628 (26.4) 626 (26.3) 536 (22.5) 593 (24.9) 9.3 0.026   
Gastrojejunal ulcer   51 17 (33.3) 13 (25.5) 10 (19.6) 11 (21.6) 2.25 n.s.   
  1. Statistical analysis: χ2 test for goodness of fit (SPPS 13.0 for Windows, Chicago, IL, 2004).