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Table 3 Risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis and outcome of patients undergoing endoscopic sphincterotomy (n = 23).

From: Management of patients with biliary sphincter of Oddi disorder without sphincter of Oddi manometry

Patient Gender Age at presentation SOD type Follow-up (months) No of ERCPs Pancreatic duct injection at 1st ERCP Pre-cut sphincterotomy at 1st ERCP Outcome of 1st ERCP Recurrence after 1st ERCP Complication
1 Female 49 I 50 4a Yes No No effect   No
2 Female 66 II 89 1 Yes Yes No effect   pancreatitis
3 Male 34 III 0 1 Yes No No effect   pancreatitis
4 Female 29 II 37 2b No No Improvement Yes No
5 Female 36 I 16 2 Yes Yes Resolution No pancreatitis (1st ERCP)
6 Female 27 I 10 1 No No Improvement No No
7 Female 44 II 27 1 Yes Yes No effect   retroperitoneal perforation
8 Female 47 II 39 2c Yes No No effect   pancreatitis (2nd ERCP)
9 Female 49 II 24 1 No Yes Resolution No No
10 Female 44 II 22 1 No No Improvement No No
11 Female 46 II 56 2d No No No effect   No
12 Female 49 II 43 2e No No No effect   No
13 Female 47 II 60 4f No No No effect   No
14 Female 26 I 13 1 No No Resolution No No
15 Female 46 II 15 1 No No No effect   No
16 Female 52 II 34 2g Yes No Improvement Yes No
17 Female 57 II 28 1 No No Improvement Yes pancreatitis
18 Female 67 II 35 1 No No Resolution Yes No
19 Female 55 II 49 4h Yes No Resolution Yes No
20 Female 46 II 92 3i No No Resolution Yes pancreatitis (1st ERCP)
21 Female 27 II 110 7j No No Improvement Yes No
22 Female 29 I 35 3k Yes No Improvement Yes pancreatitis (3rd ERCP)
23 Female 43 I 2 2 No Yes Improvement Yes pancreatitis (1st ERCP)
  1. Conventional over-the-wire biliary sphincterotomy was performed in all patients. In some patients, pre-cut sphincterotomy was performed to obtain access to the common bile duct prior to conventional sphincterotomy. The pre-cut and conventional sphincterotomy were performed during the same procedure apart from patient no 5 and 23 in whom they were performed a few weeks apart from each other as access to the common bile duct was achieved on a subsequent procedure a few weeks after pre-cut sphincterotomy.
  2. a2nd ERCP, sphincterotomy extended; 3rd ERCP, trial of stent; 4th ERCP, stent removal as it was ineffective
  3. b2nd ERCP for pancreatic sphincter of Oddi manometry showing raised pressure, pancreatic sphincterotomy performed leading to symptom improvement
  4. c2nd ERCP, sphincterotomy assessed to be inadequate and was widened with no effect on symptoms
  5. d2nd ERCP showed patent sphincterotomy, no endotherapy performed
  6. e2nd ERCP for pancreatic SOM but pancreatic duct cannulation failed
  7. f2nd ERCP done as pancreatic duct appeared dilated on follow-up MRCP. Pancreatic orifice appeared stenosed. No endotherapy performed as pancreatic stent could not be inserted despite deep guide wire pancreatic duct cannulation; 3rd ERCP for repeat attempt to perform pancreatic sphincterotomy, instrument failure during procedure; 4th ERCP pancreatic stenting and pancreatic sphincterotomy achieved leading to improvement in symptoms
  8. g2n ERCP for pancreatic SOM normal pancreatic pressure thus no endotherapy performed
  9. h2nd ERCP showed re-stenosed biliary sphincterotomy, biliary stenting performed; 3rd ERCP cholangitis due to stent obstruction, re-stenting; 4th ERCP extended sphincterotomy
  10. i2nd ERCP showed patent sphincterotomy, biliary stenting performed; 3rd ERCP removal of stent as ineffective
  11. j2nd ERCP, patent sphincterotomy, biliary stenting which was effective; 3rd-7th ERCP stent changes until surgery (choledochojejunostomy)
  12. k2nd ERCP done for pancreatic sphincter of Oddi manometry, raised pancreatic pressure found and pancreatic sphincterotomy performed with improvement in symptoms; 3rd ERCP done due to symptom recurrence showed patent sphincterotomies, referred for surgery (open transduodenal sphincteroplasty)