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Table 1 Characteristics of participants for model development and validation

From: A self-assessment tool for predicting discomfort and tolerance in Chinese patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy

  Model development (N = 1015) Model validation (N = 507)
Mean (SD) age, years 37.8 (10.3) 37.1 (10.2)
Female, n(%) 392 (38.6%) 221 (43.6%)
Mean (SD) BMI, kg/m2 22.1 (3.2) 21.8 (3.2)
Education
 Illiteracy, n(%) 50 (4.9%) 17 (3.4%)
 Primary school, n(%) 97 (9.6%) 71 (14.0%)
 Junior middle school, n(%) 445 (44.0%) 225 (44.4%)
 Senior middle school, n(%) 252 (24.9%) 118 (23.3%)
 University or higher, n(%) 168 (16.6%) 76 (15.0%)
Family annual income
 0–30 000 Yuan 416 (41.1%) 198 (39.1%)
 30 000–80 000 Yuan 327 (32.3%) 185 (36.5%)
 80 000–120 000 Yuan 149 (14.7%) 75 (14.8%)
 120 000–300 000 Yuan 66 (6.5%) 33 (6.5%)
 300 000 Yuan and above 36 (3.6%) 10 (2.0%)
 Current smoker, n(%) 234 (23.2%) 101 (20.0%)
 Current alcohol drinker, n(%) 169 (16.8%) 70 (13.9%)
 Self-reported pharyngitis, n(%) 228 (22.5%) 94 (18.6%)
 Current use of psychotropic medicine, n(%) 15 (1.5%) 4 (0.8%)
 Mean (SD) self-evaluated tolerancea 3.1 (0.9) 3.1 (0.9)
 Mean (SD) expected level of discomforta 3.2 (0.9) 3.3 (0.9)
 Mean (SD) level of anxiety before endoscopya 2.7 (1.2) 2.7 (1.2)
Pharyngeal sensitivity
 Absent, n(%) 24 (2.8%) 8 (1.8%)
 Attenuated, n(%) 75 (8.6%) 21 (4.8%)
 Normal, n(%) 770 (88.6%) 406 (93.3%)
Mallampati classification
 Class I, n(%) 231 (26.6%) 121 (27.8%)
 Class II, n(%) 301 (34.7%) 145 (33.3%)
 Class III, n(%) 164 (18.9%) 78 (17.9%)
 Class IV, n(%) 171 (19.7%) 92 (21.1%)
Indication of endoscopy
 Healthy physical examination 87 (8.6%) 42 (8.3%)
 Suspected gastrointestinal disease 587 (57.8%) 288 (56.8%)
 Gastrointestinal tumor warning symptoms 124 (12.2%) 77 (15.2%)
 Various treatments under endoscopy 167 (16.5%) 83 (16.4%)
 Lesions with regular follow-up 50 (4.9%) 17 (3.4%)
Endoscopy findings
 Chronic gastritis 980 (96.6%) 479 (94.5%)
 Peptic ulcer 95 (9.34%) 53 (10.5%)
 Gastric polyps 147 (14.5%) 76 (15.0%)
 Esophagus-gastric varices 86 (8.5%) 38 (7.4%)
 Gastric cancer 45 (4.4%) 20 (4.0%)
 Portal hypertensive gastropathy 31 (3.1%) 16 (3.2%)
 Esophagus-gastric submucosal tumor 99 (9.7%) 57 (11.2%)
  1. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index
  2. aevaluated with a 5-points visual analogue scale