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Table 2 General characteristics and dietary intake among study participants based on tertiles of the EDIP score among participants

From: The association between dietary inflammation scores and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases in Iranian adults

Variables Tertiles of EDIP P-trend
T1 (n = 211) T1 (n = 220) T1 (n = 244)
Age (year) 38.4 ± 8.9 37.3 ± 8.6 38.7 ± 9.0 0.618
Male, n (%) 117 (55.5) 104 (47.3) 137 (56.1) 0.112
Waist circumference (cm) 89.7 ± 10.2 90.7 ± 10.7 91.6 ± 11.7 0.064
Hip circumference (cm) 98.9 ± 8.1 99.3 ± 6.8 100.2 ± 8.9 0.077
WHR 0.91 ± 0.07 0.91 ± 0.08 0.91 ± 0.08 0.384
BMI (kg/m2) 26.5 ± 4.2 26.9 ± 3.9 27.1 ± 4.7 0.198
Smoking, n (%) 10 (4.7) 10 (4.5) 8 (3.3) 0.684
Physical activity (MET/min/week) 1530 ± 882 1376 ± 847 1400 ± 906 0.153
Marital status (married) 175 (82.9) 182 (82.7) 208 (85.2) 0.799
Nutrient intake     
 Energy (kcal/d) 2089 ± 614 2222 ± 573 2482 ± 663 < 0.001
 Carbohydrate (% of energy) 56.7 ± 6.7 57.2 ± 7.6 58.0 ± 7.1 0.064
 Protein (% of energy) 13.7 ± 2.7 13.4 ± 2.2 13.6 ± 2.2 0.657
 Fat (% of energy) 32.1 ± 6.4 32.1 ± 7.3 30.7 ± 7.1 0.033
EDIP components     
 EDIP score 0.25 (0.17–0.33) 0.51 (0.45–0.57) 0.83 (0.70–1.0) < 0.001
 Processed meat (serving/week) 0.07 (0.00–0.21) 0.14 (0.00–0.35) 0.14 (0.00–0.35) < 0.001
 Red meat (serving/week) 0.63 (0.35–1.19) 0.77 (0.49–1.33) 0.84 (0.49–1.40) 0.017
 Organ meat (serving/week) 0.04 (0.01–0.10) 0.03 (0.01–0.08) 0.03 (0.01–0.09) 0.727
 Other fish (serving/week) 0.35 (0.21–0.63) 0.42 (0.21–0.77) 0.44 (0.21–0.91) 0.002
 Other vegetables (serving/d) 1.3 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 1.4 < 0.001
 Refined grains (serving/d) 2.2 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.5 5.6 ± 3.3 < 0.001
 High-energy beverages (serving/week) 0.21 (0.02–0.42) 0.12 (0.07–0.56) 0.42 (0.03–0.84) 0.012
 Tomatoes (serving/d) 0.47 ± 0.39 0.86 ± 0.59 1.30 ± 0.86 < 0.001
 Tea (serving/d) 2.4 (1.0–4.2) 2.2 (1.0–3.1) 2.1 (1.0–3.1) < 0.001
 Coffee (serving/week) 0.06 (0.02–0.35) 0.04 (0.01–0.24) 0.02 (0.01–0.21) 0.391
 Dark yellow vegetables (serving/d) 0.14 (0.05–0.30) 0.11 (0.05–0.26) 0.10 (0.05–0.24) 0.067
 Leafy green vegetables (serving/d) 0.23 (0.13–0.44) 0.24 (0.15–0.47) 0.25 (0.13–0.51) 0.817
 Snacks (serving/d) 0.08 (0.01–0.16) 0.09 (0.02–0.19) 0.13 (0.02–0.20) 0.451
 Fruit juice (serving/d) 0.21 (0.07–0.27) 0.28 (0.14–0.70) 0.21 (0.07–0.56) 0.449
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation for normally distributed variables and median (25–75 interquartile range) for skewed variables
  2. EDIP: empirical dietary inflammatory patterns