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Table 1 General characteristics and dietary intake among study participants based on tertiles of the DIS score among participants

From: The association between dietary inflammation scores and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases in Iranian adults

Variables Tertiles of DIS P-trend
T1 (n = 191) T1 (n = 225) T1 (n = 259)
Age(year) 40.0 ± 9.9 38.3 ± 8.2 36.6 ± 8.3 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 91 (47.4) 120 (53.6) 147 (56.8) 0.141
Waist circumference (cm) 88.8 ± 10.5 90.9 ± 10.3 92.0 ± 11.6 0.002
Hip circumference (cm) 98.8 ± 8.2 99.8 ± 7.6 99.7 ± 8.2 0.212
WHR 0.90 ± 0.08 0.91 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.08 0.003
BMI (kg/m2) 26.6 ± 4.1 27.1 ± 4.0 26.8 ± 4.7 0.711
Smoking, n (%) 5 (2.6) 15 (6.7) 8 (3.1) 0.073
Physical activity (MET/min/week) 1485 ± 995 1436 ± 831 1391 ± 832 0.266
Marital status (married) 159 (82.8) 192 (85.7) 214 (82.6) 0.290
Nutrient intake     
 Energy (kcal/d) 2242 ± 624 2158 ± 593 2399 ± 672 0.009
 Carbohydrate (% of energy) 57.5 ± 7.3 56.2 ± 7.2 58.2 ± 7.0 0.270
 Protein (% of energy) 14.0 ± 2.7 13.8 ± 2.4 13.1 ± 2.0 < 0.001
 Fat (% of energy) 32.0 ± 6.6 32.5 ± 7.0 30.5 ± 7.0 0.022
DIS components     
 DIS score − 0.95 (− 1.37–− 0.66) − 0.06 (− 0.25–0.11) 0.77 (0.49–1.23) < 0.001
 Leafy greens and Cruciferous vegetables (g/d) 17.5 (10.8–33.8) 13.1 (7.4–23.9) 10.4 (6.8–21.4) < 0.001
 Tomatoes (g/d) 169 ± 111 110 ± 75 73 ± 58 < 0.001
 Apples and berries (g/d) 106.6 (42.2–161.0) 54.1 (22.9–114.6) 29.2 (16.8–60.1) < 0.001
 Deep yellow or orange Vegetables and fruit (g/d) 58.5 (34.2–106.1) 42.0 (24.1–68.2) 27.6 (16.1–47.2) < 0.001
 Other fruits and real fruit juices (g/d) 357 ± 250 227 ± 159 177 ± 135 < 0.001
 Other vegetables (g/d) 166 ± 84 133 ± 66 112 ± 59 < 0.001
 Legumes (g/d) 11.3 (6.2–20.5) 12.5 (7.2–21.4) 9.2 (5.5–18.4) 0.088
 Fish (g/d) 7.2 (4.1–13.4) 6.7 (3.7–12.8) 6.6 (3.2–12.9) 0.260
 Poultry (g/d) 21.4 (12.1–33.9) 21.4 (12.1–33.5) 18.2 (10.7–29.2) 0.097
 Red and organ meats (g/d) 41.0 ± 33.6 37.6 ± 25.2 37.7 ± 24.3 0.350
 Processed meats (g/d) 1.3 (0.1–4.0) 2.7 (0.4–5.7) 2.7 (0.8–6.7) < 0.001
 Added sugars (g/d) 44.4 (25.5–72.5) 45.3 (27.6–73.7) 45.9 (27.9–84.2) 0.350
 High-fat dairy (g/d) 103 (44–233) 93 (35–230) 103 (35–232) 0.939
 Low-fat dairy (g/d) 272 ± 170 254 ± 192 219 ± 145 < 0.001
 Coffee and tea (g/d) 751 (500–1127) 502 (251–750) 275 (250–508) < 0.001
 Nuts (g/d) 4.0 (1.7–8.8) 4.0 (2.1–7.2) 3.3 (1.6–6.5) < 0.001
 Other fats (g/d) 12.8 (7.3–23.9) 14.9 (8.3–29.6) 19.3 (10.5–31.5) 0.042
 Refined grains and Starchy vegetables (g/d) 342 ± 113 411 ± 135 600 ± 230  < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation for normally distributed variables and median (25–75 interquartile range) for skewed variables
  2. DIS: dietary inflammation scores