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Table 2 Summary of published IL cases with serum magnesium concentration results

From: Hypomagnesemia in intestinal lymphangiectasia: a case report and review of the literature

Authors Age/sex Clinical manifestations Magnesium (mmol/L) Total calcium (mmol/L) Corrected calcium* (mmol/L) Albumin (g/L) Potassium (mmol/L) Primary/secondary to Managements
Alshikho et al. [2] 24 years/M Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, edema, recurrent infection 0.85 1.98 2.36 21 3.8 Primary MCT diet, octreotide
Altın et al. [4] 34 years/F Dyspnea, edema Primary MCT diet, octreotide
Lu et al. [5] 34 years/F Diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, edema, tetany 0.53 1.72 2.13 19.6 Primary MCT diet, IV albumin
O’Donnell et al. [6] 16 years/F Diarrhea, edema, peripheral paresthesia, seizure, hypoparathyroidism 0.42 1.2 1.66 17 3.3 Primary Calcium supplementation
Orbeck et al. [7] 3 months/F Irritation, edema, vomiting 0.20 1.4 1.88 16 3.9 Primary MCT diet, IV albumin/electrolytes
Ozeki et al. [8] 12 years/M Diarrhea, abdominal pain, edema, weakness, tetany 0.38 2.03 14 Primary Low-fat diet, IV albumin, propranolol, everolimus
Troskot et al. [9] 42 years/M Seizure, edema, diarrhea, weight loss 0.46 1.26 1.78 14 Primary MCT diet, IV albumin/electrolytes, octreotide
Licinio et al. [10] 17 years/F Edema, ascites, liver fibrosis Primary Nutritional therapy
Klingenberg et al. [11 27 years/F Dyspnea, edema, diarrhea tetany 0.35 1.07 1.49 19 2.82 Primary Dietary management, IV albumin, octreotide
Gumà et al. [12] 34 years/F Edema, tetany, extensive warts Primary MCT diet, mineral supplements
Lu et al. [13] 4 years 8 months/F Diarrhea, edema, tetany 0.92 2.00 2.28 25.8 Primary MCT diet, IV multiple vitamins
Koçak et al. [14] 47 years/F Malaise, weakness, edema 0.6 1.75 2.38 21 Primary MCT diet
Hennekam et al. [15] Young man Lymphedema, facial anomalies, mental retardation 0.65 1.9 2.28 21 3.2 Primary (as a component of Hennekam syndrome) MCT diet, IV albumin, nutrient supplement
Hennekam et al. [15] Young women Edema, seizure, recurrent infections 0.68 1.98 2.44 17 Primary (as a component of Hennekam syndrome)
Köstel-Bal et al. [16] 2 months/M Diarrhea, fever, edema 0.46 1.26 1.78 14 Primary MCT diet
Van Biervliet et al. [17] 5 months/M tonic-clonic seizures, irritability 0.43 1.45 25 Primary MCT diet, IV albumin, nutrient supplement
Huppke et al. [18] 10 years/M Diarrhea, swelling, mental retardation, facial anomaly, muscle weakness Normal Normal   Normal   Primary (as a manifestation of Hennekam syndrome)
8 years/M Mental retardation, facial anomaly, hyperactivity Normal Normal   Normal   Primary (as a manifestation of Hennekam syndrome)
Hamada et al. [19] 4 months/M Diarrhea, muscle weakness, convulsion, slow development 0.29 1.15 1.63 16 3.2 Primary MCT diet, nutrient supplements
Zimmet et al. [20] 33 years/F Recurrent infections, diarrhea, edema, tetany, lassitude 0.25 1.50 2.18 6 Primary Gluten-free diet, calcium/vitamin D/magnesium supplements
Eisner et al. [21] 13 years/M Edema, diarrhea, mental retardation, absence of IgA 1.00 2.58 3.05 16.3 Primary Low-fat diet, IV albumin
Scully et al. [22] 70 years/F Dyspnea, edema, plural effusions 1.6 2.4 2.86 17 2.9 Unlikely primary
Bereket et al. [23] 8.5 years/F Steatorrhea, tetany 0.70 1.73 Normal Primary (as a probable component of APS-1) Steroid replacement, intensive vitamin D supplement, magnesium injection
  1. IL intestinal lymphangiectasia, M male, F female, MCT medium chain triglyceride, IV intravenous, APS-1 autoimmune polyglandular disease type 1
  2. *Calculated by total calcium (mmol/L) + 0.02×[40-albumin (g/L)] if not reported