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Table 1 Comparison of characteristics between patients with and without AKI, CA-AKI and HA-AKI

From: Characteristics of acute kidney injury and its impact on outcome in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

Variables Non-AKI
N = 357
AKI
N = 217
P value AKI
CA-AKI
N = 56
HA-AKI
N = 161
P value
Age (years) 49.6 ± 11.9 53.6 ± 12.1  < 0.001 54.1 ± 11.8 53.5 ± 12.2 0.728
Male-n (%) 265 (74.2) 169 (77.9) 0.323 45 (80.4) 124 (77.0) 0.604
Death-n(%) 77 (21.6) 120 (55.3)  < 0.001 33 (58.9) 87 (54.0) 0.0526
Hypertension-n(%) 42 (11.8) 41 (18.9) 0.019 10 (17.9) 31 (19.3) 0.818
Diabetes mellitus-n(%) 56 (9.8) 43 (19.8) 0.204 10 (17.9) 33 (20.5) 0.669
Baseline Cr (μmol/L) 60.5 ± 18.4 84.9 ± 49.1  < 0.001 128.2 ± 70.8 69.9 ± 25.5  < 0.001
Baseline eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)* 134.6 ± 43.1 109.5 ± 61.1  < 0.001 73.4 ± 45.6 122.0 ± 60.9  < 0.001
Peak Cr (μmol/L) 214.2 ± 139.9   276.4 ± 158.8 192.6 ± 126.1  < 0.001
Etiology of liver disease-n (%)    0.013    0.793
Hepatitis B 195 (54.6) 102 (47.0)   25 (44.6) 77 (47.8)  
Alcohol 92 (25.8) 81 (37.3)   23 (41.1) 58 (36.0)  
Other causes 70 (19.6) 34 (15.7)   8 (14.3) 26 (16.1)  
Complications at admission-n (%)
Ascites 182 (51.0) 118 (54.4) 0.429 30 (53.6) 88 (54.7) 0.888
HE 32 (9.0) 22 (10.1) 0.640 7 (12.5) 15 (9.3) 0.497
GI bleeding 51 (14.3) 63 (29.0)  < 0.001 19 (33.9) 44 (27.3) 0.349
Bacterial infection 46 (12.9) 54 (24.9)  < 0.001 11 (19.6) 43 (26.7) 0.292
Admission parameters
MAP (mmHg) 90 ± 11.5 88.7 ± 14.9 0.117 82.8 ± 15.0 90.7 ± 14.4  < 0.001
Heart rate (bpm) 82.6 ± 14 87.2 ± 14.9  < 0.001 91.2 ± 18 85.8 ± 13.5 0.010
WBC (× 109/L) 7.0 ± 4.4 9.8 ± 6.5  < 0.001 12.2 ± 7.2 9.0 ± 6.1  < 0.001
PLT (× 109/L) 99.3 ± 62.3 104.3 ± 69.6 0.186 111.4 ± 77.5 101.9 ± 66.7 0.190
ALB (g/L) 29.4 ± 5.1 27.3 ± 5.1  < 0.001 26.6 ± 4.5 27.5 ± 5.3 0.140
TBIL (μmol/L) 233.1 ± 129.3 263.1 ± 156.7 0.009 261.3 ± 154.4 263.7 ± 157.9 0.462
INR 2.3 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 1.1 0.034 2.6 ± 1.4 2.4 ± 1.0 0.077
PT (s) 33.8 ± 10.9 35.7 ± 13.3 0.033 36.1 ± 13.2 35.5 ± 13.3 0.391
BUN (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 3.1 10.4 ± 7.3  < 0.001 17.7 ± 7.9 7.9 ± 5.1  < 0.001
sCr (μmol/L) 60.6 ± 18.4 110.8 ± 80.7  < 0.001 213.1 ± 91.7 75.2 ± 31.1  < 0.001
Serum Na+ (mmol/L) 134.3 ± 5.8 132.3 ± 6.1  < 0.001 130.9 ± 7.2 132.8 ± 5.6 0.021
Serum K+ (mmol/L) 3.8 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.7 0.004 4.1 ± 0.9 3.9 ± 0.6 0.029
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)* 134.6 ± 43.1 105.2 ± 62.9  < 0.001 62.2 ± 45.7 120.2 ± 61.2  < 0.001
CTP 11.1 ± 1.7 11.5 ± 1.8 0.006 11.8 ± 1.7 11.4 ± 1.8 0.118
MELD 18.2 ± 5.7 22.6 ± 8.5  < 0.001 30.4 ± 7.1 20.0 ± 7.2  < 0.001
MELD-Na 22.5 ± 8.5 29.3 ± 10.9  < 0.001 38.9 ± 9.8 26.0 ± 9.2  < 0.001
Initial ICA-AKI stage-n
Stage 1/2/3   132/58/27   30/14/12 102/44/15 0.060
Peak ICA-AKI stage-n
Stage 1/2/3   84/60/73   25/9/22 59/51/51 0.080
  1. ALB albumin, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CTP child-turcotte-pugh, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HE hepatic encephalopathy, INR international normalized ratio, MAP mean arterial pressure, MELD model for end-stage liver disease, PLT platelet, sCr serum creatinine, TBIL total bilirubin, WBC white blood cells
  2. *Estimated by MDRD
  3. Bold represented P < 0.05 with statistically significant