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Table 2 Comparison of the clinical characteristics of patients with EGC between the delayed bleeding group and the nonbleeding group

From: External validation of the BEST-J score and a new risk prediction model for ESD delayed bleeding in patients with early gastric cancer

  Nonbleeding group (n = 417) Delayed bleeding group (n = 27) χ2 or t value P value
Procedure duration (min, mean ± SD) 87.09 ± 72.40 79.70 ± 49.44 0.260 0.260
Procedure duration [n (%)]     < 0.001 0.994
 ≤ 60 min 185 (44.4) 12 (44.4)   
 > 60 min 232 (55.6) 15 (55.6)   
Tumor size [n (%)]    5.790 0.016*
 ≤ 20 mm 293 (70.3) 13 (48.1)   
 > 20 mm 124 (29.7) 14 (51.9)   
Tumor location [n (%)]    NA 0.129
 Upper 127 (30.5) 4 (14.8)   
 Medial 27 (6.5) 3 (11.1)   
 Lower 263 (63.1) 20 (74.1)   
Number of resected specimen [n (%)] NA 0.196
 Single 374 (89.7) 22 (81.5)   
 Multiple 43 (10.3) 5 (18.5)   
Lifting sign [n (%)]    0.012 0.914
 Positive 328 (78.7) 21 (77.8)   
 Poor 89 (21.3) 6 (22.2)   
Intraoperative use of hemoclips [n (%)] 5.209 0.022*
 No 265 (63.5) 23 (85.2)   
 Yes 152 (36.5) 4 (14.8)   
Resection type [n (%)]    NA 0.643
 Piecemeal 21 (5.0) 2 (7.4)   
 En bloc 396 (95.0) 25 (92.6)   
Procedure time [n (%)]    0.652 0.419
 Morning 234 (56.1) 13 (48.1)   
 Afternoon 183 (43.9) 14 (51.9)   
Macroscopic type [n (%)]    NA 1.000
 Type 0-I 19 (4.6) 1 (3.7)   
 Type 0-II 396 (95.0) 26 (96.3)   
 Type 0-III 2 (0.5) 0 (0.0)   
Tumor differentiation [n (%)]    NA 0.721
 Differentiated 381 (91.4) 24 (88.9)   
 Undifferentiated 36 (8.6) 3 (11.1)   
Histological classification [n (%)]   NA 0.676
 LGIN 6 (1.4) 0 (0.0)   
 HGIN 45 (10.8) 4 (14.8)   
 Gastric cancer 366 (87.8) 23 (85.2)   
Depth of tumor invasion [n (%)]   NA 0.896
 M 367 (88.0) 24 (88.9)   
 SM1 34 (8.2) 3 (11.1)   
 SM2 16 (3.8) 0 (0.0)   
Vertical margin [n (%)]    NA 0.300
 Negative 401 (96.2) 25 (92.6)   
 Positive 16 (3.8) 2 (7.4)   
Horizontal margin [n (%)]    NA 0.077
 Negative 403 (96.6) 24 (88.9)   
 Positive 14 (3.4) 3 (11.1)   
Lymphatic invasion [n (%)]    NA 0.324
 No 400 (95.9) 25 (92.6)   
 Yes 17 (4.1) 2 (7.4)   
Venous invasion [n (%)]     < 0.001 1.000
 No 399 (95.7) 26 (96.3)   
 Yes 18 (4.3) 1 (3.7)   
Complete resection [n (%)]    NA 0.204
 No 23 (5.5) 3 (11.1)   
 Yes 394 (94.5) 24 (88.9)   
Resection classification [n (%)]   NA 0.120
 Curative resection 243 (58.3) 11 (40.7)   
 Curative resection for expanded indications 90 (21.6) 10 (37.0)   
 Noncurative resection 84 (20.1) 6 (22.2)   
Multiple tumors [n (%)]    NA 0.036*
 No 390 (93.5) 22 (81.5)   
 Yes 27 (6.5) 5 (18.5)   
Absolute indication [n (%)]    3.137 0.077
 Yes 257 (61.6) 12 (44.4)   
 No 160 (38.4) 15 (55.6)   
  1. EGC, early gastric cancer; HGIN, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia; LGIN, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia; M, confined to the mucosa; NA, not available due to Fisher’s exact test; SD, standard deviation; SM1, submucosal invasion < 500 µm from the muscularis mucosa; SM2, submucosal invasion ≥ 500 µm from the muscularis mucosa
  2. *P < 0.05