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Table 1 Baseline demographics, disease characteristics, medication history and utilization of study population

From: Objective disease activity assessment and therapeutic drug monitoring prior to biologic therapy changes in routine inflammatory bowel disease clinical practice: TARGET-IBD

Variable All participants (N = 525) Participant type
Ulcerative colitis (N = 150) Crohn's disease (N = 375)
Age at study entry (years)
 Median (n) 39 (525) 39 (150) 39 (375)
 Min–max 18–80 19–74 18–80
Age at study entry by category, n (%)1
 18–39 274 (52.2%) 78 (52.0%) 196 (52.3%)
 40–64 199 (37.9%) 53 (35.3%) 146 (38.9%)
 ≥ 65 52 (9.9%) 19 (12.7%) 33 (8.8%)
Age at diagnosis (years)
 Median (n) 26 (494) 32 (144) 24 (350)
 Min–max 1–71 1–71 6–66
Age at diagnosis by category, n (%)
 < 18 106 (20.2%) 18 (12.0%) 88 (23.5%)
 18–39 272 (51.8%) 75 (50.0%) 197 (52.5%)
 40–49 56 (10.7%) 22 (14.7%) 34 (9.1%)
 50–64 52 (9.9%) 23 (15.3%) 29 (7.7%)
 ≥ 65 8 (1.5%) 6 (4.0%) 2 (0.5%)
 Not reported 31 (5.9%) 6 (4.0%) 25 (6.7%)
Sex, n (%)
 Female 306 (58.3%) 83 (55.3%) 223 (59.5%)
 Male 219 (41.7%) 67 (44.7%) 152 (40.5%)
Race, n (%)
 White 450 (85.7%) 128 (85.3%) 322 (85.9%)
 Black or African American 36 (6.9%) 9 (6.0%) 27 (7.2%)
 Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 2 (0.4%) 1 (0.7%) 1 (0.3%)
 Asian 6 (1.1%) 1 (0.7%) 5 (1.3%)
 Other 12 (2.3%) 4 (2.7%) 8 (2.1%)
 Not reported 19 (3.6%) 7 (4.7%) 12 (3.2%)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Hispanic or Latino 20 (3.8%) 4 (2.7%) 16 (4.3%)
 Not Hispanic or Latino 478 (91.0%) 134 (89.3%) 344 (91.7%)
 Other 2 (0.4%) 1 (0.7%) 1 (0.3%)
 Not reported 25 (4.8%) 11 (7.3%) 14 (3.7%)
Insurance type at enrollment 525 (100.0%) 150 (100.0%) 375 (100.0%)
 Private 428 (81.5%) 122 (81.3%) 306 (81.6%)
 Medicare 59 (11.2%) 19 (12.7%) 40 (10.7%)
 Medicaid 42 (8.0%) 14 (9.3%) 28 (7.5%)
 Supplemental 17 (3.2%) 5 (3.3%) 12 (3.2%)
 Other 8 (1.5%) 2 (1.3%) 6 (1.6%)
 Unknown 7 (1.3%) 1 (0.7%) 6 (1.6%)
Site type, n (%)
 Academic 387 (73.7%) 101 (67.3%) 286 (76.3%)
 Community 138 (26.3%) 49 (32.7%) 89 (23.7%)
Crohn's disease location, n (%)
 n 375 375
 Colon 52 (13.9%)   52 (13.9%)
 Ileocolon 226 (60.3%)   226 (60.3%)
 Ileum 92 (24.5%)   92 (24.5%)
 Not reported 5 (1.3%)   5 (1.3%)
Upper GI tract involvement, n (%)1
 n 375 375
 No 167 (44.5%)   167 (44.5%)
 Yes 79 (21.1%)   79 (21.1%)
 Not reported 129 (34.4%)   129 (34.4%)
Crohn's disease behavior, n (%)
 n 375 375
 Inflammatory (B1) 133 (35.5%)   133 (35.5%)
 Stricturing (B2) 112 (29.9%)   112 (29.9%)
 Penetrating/fistulizing (B3) 130 (34.7%)   130 (34.7%)
Perianal disease, n (%)
 n 375 375
 No 156 (41.6%)   156 (41.6%)
 Yes 115 (30.7%)   115 (30.7%)
 Not reported 104 (27.7%)   104 (27.7%)
Ulcerative colitis extent, n (%)
 n 150 150
 Extensive 100 (66.7%) 100 (66.7%)  
 Left-sided 40 (26.7%) 40 (26.7%)  
 Proctitis 2 (1.3%) 2 (1.3%)  
 Not reported 8 (5.3%) 8 (5.3%)  
Previous biologic use, n (%)1
 No 295 (56.2%) 116 (77.3%) 179 (47.7%)
 Yes 230 (43.8%) 34 (22.7%) 196 (52.3%)
Biologic, n (%)
 Adalimumab 230 (43.8%) 69 (46.0%) 161 (42.9%)
 Certolizumab 34 (6.5%) 2 (1.3%) 32 (8.5%)
 Etanercept 1 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%)
 Golimumab 3 (0.6%) 1 (0.7%) 2 (0.5%)
 Infliximab 160 (30.5%) 52 (34.7%) 108 (28.8%)
 Ustekinumab 24 (4.6%) 0 (0.0%) 24 (6.4%)
 Vedolizumab 73 (13.9%) 26 (17.3%) 47 (12.5%)
Objective assessment or TDM, n (%)
 No assessment prior to treatment change 143 (27.2%) 41 (27.3%) 102 (27.2%)
 Objective assessment only 245 (46.7%) 65 (43.3%) 180 (48.0%)
 TDM only 32 (6.1%) 11 (7.3%) 21 (5.6%)
 Objective assessment and TDM 105 (20.0%) 33 (22.0%) 72 (19.2%)
  1. 1Includes biologic use prior to the initiation of the biologic for which there was a dose change or discontinuation due to lack of effect