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Table 3 Baseline characteristics in the unmatched and matched group according to the pathological diagnosis

From: Vater’s ampullary carcinoma increases the risk of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy: A retrospective and propensity score-matched analysis

Variables Before PS matching After PS matching
Non-VAC (n = 169) VAC (n = 94) P value Non-VAC (n = 59) VAC (n = 59) P value
Age (mean ± SD), years 60.9 ± 12.5 62.7 ± 11.4 0.251 60.5 ± 13.6 62.9 ± 10.8 0.306
Sex, n (%)    0.945    0.450
 Male 105 (62.1) 58 (61.7)   34 (57.6) 38 (64.4)  
 Female 64 (37.9) 36 (38.3)   25 (42.4) 21 (35.6)  
BMI (mean ± SD), kg/m2 23.4 ± 3.1 23.7 ± 3.9 0.591 22.8 ± 2.8 24.0 ± 3.4 0.060
Diabetic mellitus, n (%) 34 20.1) 13 (13.8) 0.202 14 (23.7) 10 (16.9) 0.360
Hypertension, n (%) 58 (34.3) 31 (32.9) 0.826 23 (38.9) 21 (35.6) 0.703
History of surgery, n (%) 50 (29.5) 29 (30.8) 0.830 18 (30.5) 20 (33.9) 0.694
Smoking, n (%) 38 (22.4) 23 (24.4) 0.715 12 (20.3) 14 (23.7) 0.657
Alcohol, n (%) 33 (19.5) 13 (13.8) 0.244 10 (16.9) 8 (13.6) 0.609
Preoperative jaundice, n (%) 52 (30.77) 51 (54.26)  < 0.001 31 (52.5) 29 (49.2) 0.713
Preoperative biliary drainage, n (%) 32 (18.93) 45 (47.87)  < 0.001 23 (38.9) 23 (38.9) 1.000
ALT (median, IQR), U/L 32.8 (14.9–74.8) 77.1 (30.5–134.4)  < 0.001 62.7 (29.0–85.6) 74.8 (25.9–143.7) 0.505
AST (median, IQR), U/L 27.3 (16.3–49.8) 44.4 (22.8–100.1)  < 0.001 36.5 (22.8–69.6) 44.5 (20.3–95.0) 0.400
AKP (median, IQR), U/L 87.6 (64.3–244.8) 223.2 (122.6–369.5)  < 0.001 219.7 (74.0–351.5) 192.2 (91.9–317.3) 0.921
γ-GGT(median, IQR), U/L 45.2 (19.3–298.4) 270.8 (98.9–562.7)  < 0.001 193.3 (30.1–497.3) 215.2 (58.5–558.4) 0.669
TB (median, IQR), U/L 13.5 (8.9–56.4) 38.5 (11.5–66.3) 0.023 47.2 (9.7–105.9) 33.8 (9.4–78.1) 0.394
DB (median, IQR), U/L 4.0 (2.1–42.0) 27.5 (5.3–46.2) 0.002 34.9 (2.7–79.9) 23.6 (2.4–57.8) 0.427
Albumin (mean ± SD), g/L 39.4 ± 3.2 37.6 ± 2.6  < 0.001 37.6 ± 3.1 38.1 ± 2.3 0.402
WBC(mean ± SD), × 109/L 5.7 ± 1.6 5.9 ± 2.0 0.422 6.2 ± 1.9 5.9 ± 2.1 0.378
Hemoglobin (mean ± SD), g/L 125.9 ± 16.8 117.1 ± 18.6  < 0.001 117.7 ± 15.3 121.1 ± 16.1 0.245
Platelet(mean ± SD), × 109/L 214.8 ± 78.6 260.0 ± 93.7  < 0.001 248.1 ± 95.5 233.9 ± 70.2 0.363
Surgical method, n (%)    0.017    0.059
 PD 128 (75.7) 58 (61.7)   45 (76.3) 35 (59.3)  
 PPPD 41 (24.3) 36 (38.3)   14 (23.7) 24 (40.7)  
Vessel resection, n (%)    0.023    NA
 No 160 (94.7) 94 (100.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Yes 9 (5.3) 0 (0.0)   59 (100.0) 59 (100.0)  
Pancreatic texture    0.010    0.569
 Firm 30 (17.8) 6 (6.4)   8 (13.6) 6 (10.2)  
 Soft 139 (82.2) 88 (93.6)   51 (86.44) 53 (89.83)  
Diameter of the MPD (mm) 3.0 (2.0–5.0) 2.0 (2.0–4.0) 0.003 3.0 (2.0–4.0) 3.0 (2.0–5.0) 0.536
Fistula risk score 5.0 (3.0–7.0) 6.0 (5.0–7.0) 0.001 6.0 (4.0–7.0) 6 (4.0–7.0) 0.434
Operating time (mean ± SD), min 382.6 ± 105.1 373.7 ± 80.6 0.446 376.5 ± 86.9 388.5 ± 75.1 0.426
Blood loss volume (median, IQR), ml 500.0 (300.0–700.0) 400.0 (300.0–600.0) 0.069 400.0 (300.0–500.0) 400 (300.0–600.0) 0.678
Blood transfusion (median, IQR), days 0.0 (0.0–737.5) 0.0 (0.0–600.0) 0.524 0.0 (0.0–750.0) 0.0 (0.0–600.0) 0.431
  1. SD: standard deviation; IQR: interquartile; BMI: body mass index; PS: propensity score; NA: not applicable; ALT: alanine aminotransferase, AST: aspartate aminotransferase, AKP: alkaline phosphate, γ-GGT:γ-glutamyl transferase, TB: total bilirubin, DB: direct bilirubin, albumin; WBC: white blood cell; VAC: Vater’s ampullary carcinoma; PD: pancreaticoduodenectomy; PPPD: pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, MPD: main pancreatic duct