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Table 1 Clinical characteristic of all patients

From: Vater’s ampullary carcinoma increases the risk of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy: A retrospective and propensity score-matched analysis

Characteristic Total(n = 263)
Age (mean ± SD), years 61.5 ± 12.1
Sex, n (%)  
 Male 163 (62.0)
 Female 100 (38.0)
BMI (mean ± SD), kg/m2 23.5 ± 3.3
Diabetic mellitus, n (%) 47 (17.9)
Hypertension, n (%) 89 (33.8)
History of surgery, n (%) 79 (30.0)
Smoking, n (%) 61 (23.2)
Alcohol, n (%) 77 (29.3)
Preoperative jaundice, n (%) 103 (39.2)
Preoperative biliary drainage, n (%) 77 (29.3)
ALT (median, IQR), U/L 45.5 (17.8–102.8)
AST (median, IQR), U/L 30.3 (17.9–63.5)
AKP (median, IQR), U/L 141.2 (69.5–290.2)
γ-GGT (median, IQR), U/L 130.6 (22.9–387.8)
TB (median, IQR), μmol/L 16.0 (9.2–58.6)
DB (median, IQR), μmol/L 6.5 (2.3–45.2)
Albumin (mean ± SD), g/L 38.8 ± 3.1
WBC(mean ± SD), × 109/L 5.8 ± 1.8
Hemoglobin (mean ± SD), g/L 122.8 ± 17.9
Platelet(mean ± SD), × 109/L 230.9 ± 86.8
Pathology diagnosis, n (%)  
 VAC 94 (35.7)
 PDAC 61 (23.2)
 DCC 24 (9.1%)
 IPMN 25 (9.5%)
 SCN 10 (3.8%)
 pNET 9 (3.4%)
 SPN 6 (2.3%)
 MCN 4 (1.5%)
 CP 4 (1.5%)
 Others 26 (9.9%)
Surgical method, n (%)  
 PD 186 (70.7)
 PPPD 77 (29.3)
Vessel resection, n (%)  
 Yes 9 (3.4)
 No 254 (96.6)
Pancreatic texture  
 Firm 36 (13.7)
 Soft 227 (86.3)
Diameter of the MPD (mm) 3.0 (2.0–5.0)
Fistula risk score 6.0 (4.0–7.0)
Operating time (mean ± SD), min 379.4 ± 96.9
Blood loss volume (median, IQR), ml 400.0 (300.0–700.0)
Blood transfusion (median, IQR), ml 0.0 (0.0–700.0)
CR-POPF, n (%) 99 (37.6)
Biliary leakage, n (%) 16 (6.1)
DGE, n (%) 94 (35.7)
PPH, n (%) 22 (8.4)
Chylous fistula, n (%) 31 (11.8)
Major postoperative complications, n (%) 57 (21.7)
Wound infection, n (%) 14 (5.3)
Intra-abdominal infection, n (%) 106 (40.3)
Bacteremia, n (%) 14 (5.3)
Pneumonia, n (%) 8 (3.0)
Urinary tract infection, n (%) 3 (1.4)
  1. SD: standard deviation; IQR: interquartile; BMI: body mass index; ALT: alanine aminotransferase, AST: aspartate aminotransferase, AKP: alkaline phosphate, γ-GGT:γ-glutamyl transferase, TB:total bilirubin, DB: direct bilirubin; WBC: white blood cell; VAC: Vater’s ampullary carcinoma; PDAC: pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; DCC: distal cholangiocarcinoma; IPMN: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm; SPN: solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas; SCN: pancreatic serous cystadenoma; MCN: mucinous cystadenoma of pancreas; pNET: pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; CP: chronic pancreatitis; MPD: main pancreatic duct; PD: pancreaticoduodenectomy; PPPD: pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy; CR-POPF: Clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (Grade B/ C), PPH: post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage; DGE: delayed gastric emptying