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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients (N = 353)

From: The effects of preoperative intestinal dysbacteriosis on postoperative recovery in colorectal cancer surgery: a prospective cohort study

Variable Total
(n = 353)
Dysbacteriosis grade 1 (n = 268) Dysbacteriosis grade 2 (n = 58) Dysbacteriosis grade 3 (n = 27) F/x2 P
Age (years), Mean ± SD (range) 60.7 ± 12.6 (21–88) 60.5 ± 12.9 (21–88) 61.4 ± 12.1
(31–86)
60.7 ± 10.9
(43–79)
0.120 0.887
Sex, N(%)      2.124 0.351
 Male 150 (42.5%) 110 (41.0%) 25 (43.1%) 15 (55.6%)   
 Female 203 (57.5%) 158 (59.0%) 33 (56.9%) 12 (44.4%)   
Tumour location, N(%)      7.282 0.026
 Rectum 204 (57.8%) 160 (59.7%) 25 (43.1%) 19 (70.4%)   
 Colon 149 (42.2%) 108 (40.3%) 33 (56.9%) 8 (29.6%)   
BMI (kg/m2), N(%)      3.524 0.710§
 Underweight (< 18.5) 24 (6.8%) 16 (6.0%) 5 (8.6%) 3 (11.1%)   
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 246 (69.7%) 184 (68.7%) 43 (74.1%) 19 (70.4%)   
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 80 (22.7%) 65 (24.3%) 10 (17.2%) 5 (18.5%)   
 Obese (≥ 30.0) 3 (0.8%) 3 (1.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)   
Comorbidities, N(%)       
 Cardiopulmonary disease 39 (11.0%) 34 (12.7%) 3 (5.2%) 2 (7.4%) 3.134 0.209
 Diabetes 26 (7.4%) 19 (7.1%) 4 (6.9%) 3 (11.1%) 0.604 0.739
 Liver or kidney disease 12 (3.4%) 9 (3.4%) 1 (1.7%) 2 (7.4%) 1.913 0.409§
 Preoperative anaemia 136 (38.5%) 96 (35.8%) 26 (44.8%) 14 (51.9%) 3.825 0.146
Preoperative albumin (g/L), Mean ± SD 42.39 ± 4.97 42.63 ± 4.66 42.18 ± 6.14 40.44 ± 4.95 2.436 0.089
Neoadjuvant therapy, N(%) 77 (21.8%) 65 (24.3%) 7 (12.1%) 5 (18.5%) 4.337 0.111
ASA score, N(%)      8.330 0.198 §
 1 7 (2.0%) 3 (1.1%) 3 (5.2%) 1 (3.7%)   
 2 271 (76.8%) 211 (78.7%) 42 (72.4%) 18 (66.7%)   
 3 74 (21.0%) 53 (19.8%) 13 (22.4%) 8 (29.6%)   
 4 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.4%) 0 0   
TNM stage, N(%)      8.295 0.217
 I 67 (19.0%) 48 (17.9%) 14 (24.1%) 5 (18.5%)   
 II 118 (33.4%) 86 (32.1%) 23 (39.7%) 9 (33.3%)   
 III 147 (41.6%) 120 (44.8%) 15 (25.9%) 12 (44.4%)   
 IV 21 (5.9%) 14 (5.2%) 6 (10.3%) 1 (3.7%)   
Surgical approach, N(%)      1.203 0.548
 Open abdominal 86 (24.4%) 69 (25.7%) 12 (20.7%) 5 (18.5%)   
 Laparoscopic 267 (75.6%) 199 (74.3%) 46 (79.3%) 22 (81.5%)   
Operation time, N(%)      0.844 0.656
 < 3 h 100 (28.3%) 79 (29.5%) 15 (25.9%) 6 (22.2%)   
 ≥ 3 h 253 (71.7%) 189 (70.5%) 43 (74.1%) 21 (77.8%)   
Intraoperative blood loss (ml), Median (IQR) 50 (30–80) 50 (30–80) 50 (30–60) 50 (30–100) 2.639 0.267
Mechanical bowel preparation, N(%) 214 (60.6%) 162 (60.4%) 33 (56.9%) 19 (70.4%) 1.415 0.493
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index. ASA American Society of Anaesthesiologists. TNM the tumour-node-metastasis staging
  2. BMI was classified according to the World Health Organization criteria
  3. Cardiopulmonary diseases including chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic pulmonary heart disease. Liver or kidney disease includes hepatic cirrhosis and chronic renal dysfunction. Preoperative anaemia was defined as haemoglobin (Hb) < 120 g/L for women and < 135 g/L for men
  4. §The P value was obtained by Fisher's exact test