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Table 2 Univariate analysis among patients with elevated BLL (n = 187)

From: Blood lead concentrations among pediatric patients with abdominal pain: a prospective cross-sectional study

Variable Odd ratio (95% CI) P value Variable Odd ratio (95% CI) P value
Epidemiological Characteristics (yes vs. no)    Symptoms (Yes vs. no)   
Gender (male vs. female) 1.61 (0.77–3.35) 0.20 Constipation 1.23 (0.54–2.83) 0.62
Age (lower than 5 years old) 3.19 (1.50–6.78) 0.002 Withholding 0.71 (0.07–7.03) 0.77
Weight (≥ 23.5 kg) 0.35 (0.16–0.79) 0.009 Diarrhea 1.08 (0.22–5.25) 0.92
Height (≤ 103.5 Cm) 3.15 (1.44–6.90) 0.003 Nausea 0.60 (0.23–1.55) 0.28
Accommodation details (Yes vs. no)    Vomiting 0.60 (0.23–1.55) 0.28
Living in Tehran 0.81 (0.36–1.83) 0.62 Dark stool 0.88 (0.27–2.84) 0.83
Recent renovation of the living place 1.30 (0.55–3.09) 0.55 Dysuria 0.45 (0.13–1.58) 0.20
Living near to industrial zones 0.83 (0.16–4.16) 0.81 No gas passing 1.08 (0.22–5.22) 0.93
Metal pipes used in the living place 1.17 (0.52–2.63) 0.69 Blowing 1.66 (0.54–5.11) 0.37
Wall sleek oil colored 0.47 (0.18–1.21) 0.11 Lack of concentration 0.70 (0.18–2.72) 0.60
Wall opaque oil colored 0.46 (0.10–2.10) 0.30 Difficult child 0.95 (0.10–8.79) 0.97
Plastic wall pain 1.44 (0.59–3.52) 0.42 Learning disability 1.45 (0.17–12.42) 0.73
Multicolor wall paint 1.87 (0.61–5.69) 0.26 Anemia 0.70 (0.14–3.64) 0.67
Wallpaper 0.83 (0.09–7.37) 0.87 Heartburn 0.95 (0.25–3.56) 0.94
Medical history (yes vs. no)    Headache 1.12 (0.30–4.14) 0.86
Meconium 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.32 Loss of appetite 1.73 (0.62–4.81) 0.29
Soiling 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.62 Muscle weakness 0.45 (0.13–1.58) 0.20
Conduction of endoscopy (yes vs. no) 0.43 (0.18–1.06) 0.06 Pain in extremities 0.37 (0.09–1.65) 0.18
History of intestinal surgery (yes vs. no) 0.95 (0.10–8.79) 0.97 Paresthesia 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.62
History of abdominal imaging (yes vs. no) 0.91 (0.34–2.42) 0.84 Hearing or visionary impairments 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 0.39
History of abdominal sonography (yes vs. no) 1.02 (0.44–2.36) 0.97 Muscle pain 0.22 (0.04–1.15) 0.05
Personal habits (yes vs. no)    Bone pain 0.95 (0.19–4.68) 0.95
Soil playing 0.94 (0.39–2.26) 0.89 Acute onset of abdominal pain 0.95 (0.92–0.99) 0.18
Special diet 0.76 (0.23–2.48) 0.65 Chronic abdominal pain 0.89 (0.42–1.88) 0.77
Frequent use of spices or medicinal plants 1.46 (0.17–12.51) 0.73 Recurrent abdominal pain 1.35 (0.64–2.85) 0.42
Pika 0.224 (0.043–1.62) 0.053 Family issues (Yes vs. no)   
    Mothers’ employment status 0.95 (0.26–3.53) 0.94
Ice eating 0.38 (0.09–1.67) 0.18 Mothers’ educational status (school diploma and above) 1.97 (0.92–4.23) 0.07
Paint wall eating    Mothers’ educational status (school diploma and above) 1.97 (0.92–4.23) 0.07
Toy paint eating 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.62    
Playing with toys made of plastic 0.51 (0.24–1.09) 0.07    
    Fathers’ educational status (14-year schooling and above) 1.57 (0.70–3.53) 0.27
Playing with toys made of metals 1.33 (0.41–4.34) 0.64 Fathers’ educational status (14-year schooling and above) 1.57 (0.70–3.53) 0.27
Playing with toys made of cotton 1.22 (0.37–3.96) 0.74    
Playing with toys made of plastic and cotton 2.80 (1.07–7.29) 0.03 Positive history for parents’ addiction habit (yes vs. no) 2.57 (0.71–9.31) 0.14
Playing with toys made of plastic and metal 1.43 (0.37–5.60) 0.60    
Playing with toys made of plastic 0.51 (0.24–1.09) 0.07