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Table 5 Non-invasive predictors associated with the incidence of malignancies, except for liver cancer

From: PNPLA3 genotype and fibrosis-4 index predict cardiovascular diseases of Japanese patients with histopathologically-confirmed NAFLD

Factor Category Univariate Multivariate
Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value* Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value*
FIB-4 index  < 2.67 1    1   
   ≥ 2.67 2.51 (1.10–5.74) 0.029 25.2 (2.81–226) 0.004
Waist circumference** Small 1      
  Large** 5.78 (1.09–30.3) 0.039    
ALDH2 rs671 GG 1      
  AA, AG 5.46 (1.82–16.4) 0.002    
PNPLA3 rs738409 CC, CG 1      
  GG 3.64 (1.41–9.44) 0.008    
Previous or current liver-related events Absence 1      
  Presence 3.42 (1.14–10.3) 0.028    
Type 2 diabetes mellitus Absence 1      
  Presence 2.49 (1.19–5.21) 0.015    
  1. *Significance was determined using the Cox proportional hazard model. Variables that were statistically significant on univariate analysis were entered into multivariate analysis to identify significant independent factors
  2. **Large waist circumference was defined as ≥ 85 cm in men and ≥ 90 cm in women. The characteristics of the 426 patients confirmed to have no previous or current malignancies except for liver cancer at NAFLD diagnosis were evaluated for the rate of development of malignancies except for liver cancer. During the follow-up period, 32 patients developed malignancies except for liver cancer. Liver-related events included liver cancer, hepatic encephalopathy, esophago-gastric varices with bleeding, ascites, and jaundice