Skip to main content

Table 4 Risk of all-cause mortality in CLD patients with COVID-191 and population controls with COVID-19, matched at the index date

From: Risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality in patients with established chronic liver disease: a nationwide matched cohort study

All-Cause Mortality N exposed (%) N death (%) Incidence rate (95% CI) HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR* (95% CI)
Liver disease Comparators Liver disease Comparators Liver disease Comparators
Any COVID-19 infection1 566 1832 53 (9.4%) 158 (8.6%) 0.5 (0.3–0.6) 0.5 (0.4–0.5) 1.08 (0.79–1.48) 0.85 (0.61–1.19)
 Cirrhosis 51 114 9 (17.6%) 15 (13.2%) 1.0 (0.3–1.6) 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 1.36 (0.59–3.10) 0.81 (0.30–2.17)
 No Cirrhosis 515 1718 44 (8.5%) 143 (8.3%) 0.4 (0.3–0.6) 0.5 (0.4–0.5) 1.02 (0.73–1.43) 0.80 (0.56–1.15)
Hospitalized with COVID-19 161 435 23 (14.3%) 74 (17.0%) 0.6 (0.4–0.9) 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 0.82 (0.51–1.31) 0.91 (0.54–1.51)
  1. CLD, chronic liver disease; N, number; CI, confidence interval; PY, person-years; HR, hazard ratio
  2. *Adjusted for age, sex, index year, education, Nordic country of birth, and medical comorbidities at index date (i.e. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, end-stage renal disease, alcohol use disorder, obesity/dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, cancer, psychiatric disease)
  3. 1Any COVID-19 was defined as either a recorded diagnosis of COVID-19 or hospitalization for COVID-19 (see “Methods” and Additional file 1: Table S3 for definitions)