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Table 2 Risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and severe COVID-19 in patients with chronic liver disease1 (n = 42,320) and matched population controls (n = 182,147), from February 1 to July 31, 2020

From: Risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality in patients with established chronic liver disease: a nationwide matched cohort study

Outcome N events (%) Time at risk (years) Incidence rate (95% CI) per 1000 PY HR2 (95% CI) Adjusted HR3 (95% CI)
Liver disease Comparators Liver disease Comparators Liver disease Comparators
Main outcomes         
Hospital admission 161 (0.38%) 435 (0.24%) 20,786 89,945 7.7 (6.5–8.9) 4.8 (4.4–5.3) 1.49 (1.24–1.79) 1.36 (1.11–1.66)
Severe COVID-191 65 (0.15%) 191 (0.10%) 20,816 90,021 3.1 (2.4–3.9) 2.1 (1.8–2.4) 1.16 (0.87–1.55) 1.08 (0.79–1.48)
Secondary outcomes         
Main outcomes combined 182 (0.43%) 504 (0.28%) 20,786 89,945 8.8 (7.5–10.0) 5.6 (5.1–6.1) 1.39 (1.17–1.65) 1.28 (1.06–1.54)
All-cause mortality 622 (1.47%) 1115 (0.61%) 20,822 90,034 29.9 (27.5–32.2) 12.4 (11.7–13.1) 2.00 (1.81–2.21) 1.62 (1.45–1.81)
Any COVID-19 566 (1.34%) 1832 (1.01%) 20,711 89,698 27.3 (25.1–29.6) 20.4 (19.5–21.4) 1.29 (1.17–1.42) 1.16 (1.05–1.28)
  1. N., number; CI, confidence interval; PY, person-years; HR, hazard ratio
  2. 1Severe COVID-19 was a composite outcome, defined by any of the following: (a) COVID-19 ICU admission, or (b) death due to COVID-19 or (c) death within 30 days of diagnosed COVID-19 (for details, see “Methods”)
  3. 2Conditioned on matching set (age, sex, county, and calendar period)
  4. 3Conditioned on matching set and further adjusted for education, Nordic country of birth, and medical comorbidities at the index date (i.e. the date of index liver biopsy or corresponding matching date among comparators), including: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, end-stage renal disease, alcohol use disorder, obesity/dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, cancer and psychiatric disease