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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic liver disease (CLD; n = 42,320) and matched population controls (n = 182,147) on February 1, 2020

From: Risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality in patients with established chronic liver disease: a nationwide matched cohort study

Characteristic CLD patients (n = 42,320) Matched controls (n = 182,147)
Females, no. (%) 21,591 (51.0%) 93,906 (51.6%)
Males, no (%) 20,729 (49.0%) 88,241 (48.4%)
Age at start of follow-up1   
 Mean (SD) 60.9 (16.0) 59.4 (15.6)
 Median (IQR) 62.8 (51.8–72.8) 61.4 (50.5–71.0)
 Range, min–max 3.1–99.7 3.2–99.8
Categories, no. (%)   
 < 18 years 508 (1.2%) 2479 (1.4%)
 18 to < 40 years 4105 (9.7%) 19,274 (10.6%)
 40 to < 60 years 13,567 (32.1%) 62,844 (34.5%)
 ≥ 60 years 24,140 (57.0%) 97,550 (53.6%)
Country of birth, no (%)   
 Nordic country 36,036 (85.2%) 162,473 (89.2%)
 Other 6284 (14.8%) 19,670 (10.8%)
 Missing 0 4 (0.0%)
Level of education3, no (%)   
 ≤ 9 years 9467 (22.4%) 33,283 (18.3%)
 10–12 years 20,139 (47.6%) 83,677 (45.9%)
 > 12 years 12,567 (29.7%) 64,460 (35.4%)
 Missing 147 (0.3%) 727 (0.4%)
Index year2   
 1969–1989 2966 (7.0%) 11,276 (6.2%)
 1990–1999 11,722 (27.7%) 47,935 (26.3%)
 2000–2009 15,979 (37.8%) 69,263 (38.0%)
 2010–2017 11,653 (27.5%) 53,673 (29.5%)
Comorbidities4, ever before index date2, no. (%)   
 Any cardiovascular disease 5892 (13.9%) 11,509 (6.3%)
 Diabetes 2312 (5.5%) 3548 (1.9%)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 513 (1.2%) 869 (0.5%)
 End-stage renal disease 205 (0.5%) 118 (0.1%)
 Alcohol use disorder 2450 (5.8%) 3184 (1.7%)
 Obesity/dyslipidemia 2399 (5.7%) 4026 (2.2%)
 Obstructive sleep apnea 492 (1.2%) 1490 (0.8%)
 Cancer 5832 (13.8%) 4327 (2.4%)
 Psychiatric disease 5015 (11.9%) 11,090 (6.1%)
  1. Complete covariate data were available through December 31, 2016
  2. CLD, chronic liver disease; no., number; SD, standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range
  3. 1Start date of follow-up was defined as February 1, 2020 (see “Methods”)
  4. 2The index date was defined as the date of liver biopsy confirming chronic liver disease (CLD), or the corresponding matching date among controls
  5. 3Level of education was defined in 4 categories; among subjects with missing level of education, then the highest attained education level among parents was used
  6. 4For definitions of comorbidities, see the Additional file 1