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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population in derivation and validation cohorts

From: A neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio-based prognostic model to predict mortality in patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure

Variable Total(n = 494) Derivationcohort (n = 290) Validationcohort (n = 204) Pvalue
Age (years) 45 (37–55) 44 (37–54) 46 (38–58) 0.172
Male,% (n/N) 85.2 (421/494) 86.9 (252/290) 82.8 (169/204) 0.211
HBeAg positive,% (n/N) 43.3 (214/494) 44.5 (129/290) 41.7 (85/204) 0.534
HBV DNA,% (n/N)     
 ≤ 200 IU/ml 30.0 (148/494) 35.2 (102/290) 22.5 (46/204)  < 0.001
 200–2 × 10 4 IU/ml 36.2 (179/494) 39.3 (114/290) 31.8 (65/204)  
 ≥ 2 × 10 4 IU/ml 33.8 (167/494) 25.5 (74/290) 45.7 (93/204)  
Cirrhosis,% (n/N) 77.1 (381/494) 76.9 (223/290) 77.5 (158/204) 0.885
Ascites,% (n/N) 66.2 (327/494) 65.2 (189/290) 67.6 (138/204) 0.567
Bacterial infection,% (n/N) 38.5 (190/494) 42.4 (123/290) 32.8 (67/204) 0.031
Laboratory test     
 WBC (109 /L) 6.3 (4.7–9.1) 6.8 (5.0–9.8) 5.9 (4.4–8.1) 0.005
 NLR 4.3 (2.5–7.9) 4.6 (2.5–7.9) 4.1 (2.4–7.7) 0.272
 Platelets (109 /L) 90 (59–129) 90.5 (59–128) 90 (58.5–131) 0.871
 TB (mg/dL) 323 (205–467) 333 (209–467) 310 (201–467) 0.573
 Albumin (g/L) 32.4 ± 5.3 32.8 ± 5.2 31.7 ± 5.4 0.012
 Creatinine (µmol/L) 66 (54–81) 66 (56–81) 65 (53–82) 0.524
 Sodium (mmol/L) 137 (133–139) 136 (132–139) 137 (133–139) 0.079
 Glucose (mmol/L) 5.7 (4.4–7.8) 5.7 (4.4–7.5) 5.7 (4.1–8.5) 0.583
 Lactate (mmol/L) 1.9 (1.3–2.6) 2.0 (1.3–2.7) 1.8 (1.3–2.4) 0.238
 INR 1.9 (1.6–2.5) 2.1 (1.7–2.8) 1.8 (1.5–2.3)  < 0.001
HE grade 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0.360
Severity score     
 CTP score 11 (10–12) 11 (10–12) 11 (10–12) 0.341
 MELD score 22 (18–27) 23 (19–28) 21 (18–25) 0.014
 MELD-Na score 23 (19–30) 24 (19–32) 22 (19–28) 0.014
 AARC ACLF score 9 (7–10) 9 (8–11) 8.5 (7–10) 0.002
  5–7 28.7 (142/494) 24.1 (70/290) 35.3 (72/204) 0.010
  8–10 47.0 (232/494) 47.9 (139/290) 45.6 (93/204)  
  11–15 24.3 (120/494) 27.9 (81/290) 19.1 (39/204)  
Antiviral history,% (n/N)     
 Naïve 71.3 (352/494) 69.3 (201/290) 74.0 (151/204) 0.255
 Non–naïve 28.7 (142/494) 30.7 (89/290) 26.0 (53/204) 0.255
 Poor adherence 76.8 (109/142) 78.7 (70/89) 73.6 (39/53) 0.489
Antibiotic history,% (n/N) 36.4 (180/494) 41.0 (119/290) 29.9 (61/204) 0.011
Artificial liver support history,% (n/N) 19.2 (95/494) 21.0 (61/290) 16.7 (34/204) 0.225
  1. HBeAg hepatitis b envelope antigen, HBV hepatitis b virus, WBC white blood cell count, NLR neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, TB total bilirubin, INR international normalized ratio, HE hepatic encephalopathy, CTP Child-Turcotte-Pugh, MELD model for end-stage liver disease, ACLF acute-on-chronic liver failure, AARC Asian Pacific Society for the Study of the Liver ACLF research consortium
  2. Continuous variables with normal distributions were described using mean ± SD. Continuous variables with skewed distributions were described using median with interquartile range (IQR) and compared using the Mann–Whitney U test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (frequencies) and compared using the Chi‐square test followed by Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate