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Table 5 Results of Cox proportional hazards estimate of the composite outcome of death or liver transplant

From: Lower testosterone levels predict increasing severity and worse outcomes of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure in males

Variables Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value
Model 1
TT (TT < 142.39 ng/dL vs TT142.39 ng/dL) 4.49 (2.12–9.53)  < 0.001
Model 2
TT (TT < 142.39 ng/dL vs TT142.39 ng/dL) 3.02 (1.33–6.86) 0.008
Age (years)   0.445
Body mass index (kg/m2)   0.511
1–Ln (sex-hormone-binding globulin [nmol/L]) 2.04 (1.08–3.87) 0.028
1–Ln (free testosterone index [%])   0.508
SQRT (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [μg/dL])   0.570
SQRT (cortisol [μg/dL]) 1.75 (1.32–2.31)  < 0.001
SQRT (androstenedione [ng/mL])   0.353
Model 3
TT (TT < 142.39 ng/dL vs TT142.39 ng/dL) 2.57 (1.09–6.02) 0.030
Age (years)   0.837
Body mass index (kg/m2)   0.941
1–Ln (sex-hormone-binding globulin [nmol/L])   0.701
1–Ln (free testosterone index [%])   0.921
SQRT (cortisol [μg/dL])   0.083
SQRT (androstenedione [ng/mL])   0.068
International normalized ratio 2.32 (1.74–3.11)  < 0.001
Ln (urea nitrogen [mmol/L]) 2.65 (1.82–3.85)  < 0.001
Total bilirubin (μmol/L)   0.246
Direct bilirubin (μmol/L)   0.410
Ln (white blood cell count [109/L])   0.100
Ln (platelet count [109/L])   0.641
Ln (total cholesterol [mmol/L])   0.343
Total protein (g/L)   0.143
  1. Cox proportional hazards regression models for total testosterone (TT, Model 1) and models additionally adjusted for age; body mass index; sex-hormone-binding globulin; free testosterone index; cortisol; androstenedione; international normalized ratio; urea nitrogen; total bilirubin; direct bilirubin; white blood cell count; platelet count; total cholesterol and total protein. Hazard ratios are given with 95% confidence intervals within parentheses. The null hypotheses for all proportional hazard assumptions tests were not rejected for total testosterone in any model. Twenty-three patients received liver transplants and 32 died within 90 days