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Table 4 Clinical characteristics in relation to total testosterone level

From: Lower testosterone levels predict increasing severity and worse outcomes of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure in males

  TT < 142.39 ng/dL (n = 104) TT ≥ 142.39 ng/dL (n = 56) P values
Stage of acute-on-chronic liver failure, % (n)
Early stage 9.6% (10) 39.3% (22)  < 0.001
Middle stage 38.5% (40) 37.5% (21)  < 0.001
End stage 51.9% (54) 23.2% (13)  < 0.001
Complications, % (n)
Ascites 80.8% (84) 48.2% (27)  < 0.001
 Mild Ascites 49% (51) 41.1% (23)  < 0.001
 Severe Ascites 31.7% (33) 7.1% (4)  < 0.001
Hepatic encephalopathy 31.7% (33) 3.6% (2)  < 0.001
 Grade I or II 12.5% (13) 1.8% (1)  < 0.001
 Grade III or IV 19.2% (20) 1.8% (1)  < 0.001
Infection 26.9% (28) 28.6% (16) 0.824
Acute kidney injury 7.7% (8) 0% (0) 0.051
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage 2.9% (3) 0% (0) 0.552
Laboratory data
Albumin (g/dL) 31 (28–34) 32 (31–34) 0.01
Total bilirubin (μmol/L) 378 (301–468) 309 (256–398)  < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.0 (1.6–2.3) 2.5 (1.9–4.9)  < 0.001
Hemoglobin (g/L) 123 (111–133) 128 (119–135) 0.03
Platelet count (109/L) 100 (67–126) 120 (91–180)  < 0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 12.3 (8.2–20.1) 9.6 (6.0–16.2)  < 0.001
Sex-hormone-binding globulin (nmol/L) 32 (25–46) 54 (44–72)  < 0.001
Free testosterone index (%) 7.0 (5.3–9.7) 18.0 (12.5–24.1)  < 0.001
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (μg/dL) 160 (88–310) 127 (70–218) 0.06
Cortisol (μg/dL) 9.2 (7.1–13.2) 8.9 (5.7–12.2) 0.44
Androstenedione (ng/mL) 3.35 (2.23–4.97) 3.60 (2.32–4.47) 0.69
Severity score
MELD 33 (29–35) 29 (26–31)  < 0.001
COSSH-ACLF 6.7 (6.2–7.6) 5.8 (5.5–6.3)  < 0.001
Mortality, % (n)
90 days 45.2% (47) 14.3% (8)  < 0.001
  1. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range; 25th and 75th percentiles) or percentage (frequency)
  2. The mortality refers to rate of composite outcome defined as death or transplantation
  3. MELD Model for End-stage Liver Disease, COSSH-ACLF Chinese Group on the Study of Severe Hepatitis B-acute-on-chronic liver failure