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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Lower testosterone levels predict increasing severity and worse outcomes of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure in males

Characteristic Healthy controls
(n = 106)
Chronic Hepatitis B
(n = 151)
HBV-ACLF
(n = 160)
HBV-ACLF (n = 160)
Early stage
(n = 32)
Middle stage
(n = 61)
End stage
(n = 67)
Age (years) 43 (35–52) 43 (35–51) 45 (36–56) 40 (32–56) 49 (39–57) 45 (37–53)
BMI (kg/m2) 23.3 (21.6–25.2) 23.4 (21.8–26.6) 24.0 (21.8–26.3) 24.0 (21.3–26.5) 23.9 (21.8–25.7) 24.2 (21.6–26.4)
Diabetes, % (n) 7.5% (8) 7.3% (11) 8.1% (13) 3.1% (1) 11.5% (7) 7.5% (5)
Hypertension, % (n) 17.0% (18) 14.6% (22) 18.1% (29) 12.5% (4) 23.0% (14) 16.4% (11)
ALT (U/L) 15 (12–21) 27 (19–35)a 234 (116–442)b 305 (182–466) 158 (101–274)c 269 (112–587)d
AST (U/L) 19 (16–22) 24 (19–32)a 129 (84–229)b 158 (78–350) 110 (75–147)c 156 (92–280)d
Albumin (g/dL) 47 (45–49) 48 (46–51) 31 (29–34)b 33 (31–36) 31 (29–33)c 31 (28–34)
Tbil (μmol/L) 11 (9–13) 13 (10–18) 350 (285–431)b 304 (264–421) 369 (290–420) 370 (305–486)
Platelet count (109/L) 222 (192–264) 193 (161–230) 106 (71–138)b 139 (108–193) 100 (73–127)c 98 (61–128)
TT (ng/dL) 567 (444–714) 573 (444–743) 101 (61–202)b 291 (129–481) 107 (59–187)c 76 (45–130)
SHBG (nmol/L) 33 (27–47) 37 (28–88) 40 (28–55) 55 (43–75) 47 (31–57) 32 (22–43)d
FTI (%) 57.3 (46.3–68.3) 53 (41–64) 9.7 (6.1–15.5)b 17.6 (9.8–25.8) 8.4 (6.4–11.9)c 8.1 (5.4–13.7)
DHEAS (μg/dL) 304 (232–380) 286 (183–364) 152 (86–283)b 183 (109–394) 106 (48–200)c 194 (97–292)d
Cortisol (μg/dL) 13.2 (9.3–16.0) 11.7 (8.9–15.7) 9.1 (6.9–12.5)b 9.4 (7.5–14.8) 8.8 (6.5–11.6) 11.1 (5.5–15.0)
Androstenedione (ng/mL) 1.7 (1.3–2.3) 1.8 (1.4–2.1) 3.5 (2.3–4.7)b 3.5 (2.9–4.8) 2.8 (1.6–3.7) 4.2 (2.6–5.6)d
  1. HBV-ACLF Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure, BMI body mass index, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, Tbil total bilirubin, TT total testosterone, SHBG sex-hormone-binding globulin, FTI free testosterone index, DHEAS dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
  2. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range; 25th and 75th percentiles) or percentage (frequency). P value < 0.05 for comparisons between chronic hepatitis B and healthy controlsa, HBV-ACLF and chronic hepatitis Bb, middle stage and early stagec, and between end stage and middle staged