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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Predictive scoring systems for in-hospital mortality due to acutely decompensated liver cirrhosis in Indonesia

Characteristic Entire cohort (n = 241) Discharged alive (n = 212) Died during hospitalization (n = 29)
Age (year), mean ± SD 53.4 ± 12.03 52.25 ± 11.5 61.5 ± 13.02
Sex, n (%)    
Male 179 (74.3) 162 (76.4) 17 (58.6)
Female 62 (25.7) 50 (23.6) 12 (41.4)
Etiology, n (%)    
Hepatitis B 93 (38.6) 84 (39.6) 9 (31)
Hepatitis C 70 (29) 57 (26.9) 13 (44.8)
Hepatitis B & C 5 (2.1) 5 (2.4) 0 (0)
NAFLD 3 (1.3) 3 (1.4) 0 (0)
Alcohol 1 (0.04) 1 (0.5) 0 (0)
Cryptogenic 69 (28.6) 62 (29.25) 7 (24.14)
Child–Pugh, n (%)    
A 53 (22) 52 (24.5) 1 (3.4)
B 96 (40) 91 (42.9) 5 (17.2)
C 92 (38) 69 (32.5) 23 (79.3)
Score, median (min–max) 9 (5–15) 8 (5–15) 11 (6–14)
HCC (within the Milan Criteria), n (%) 4 (1.7) 4 (1.89) 0 (0)
Comorbidities, n (%)    
Diabetes mellitus 81 (33.6) 67 (31.6) 14 (48.3)
Hypertension 32 (13.3) 30 (14.1) 2 (6.9)
Charlson comorbidities, n (%)    
None 138 (57.3) 124 (58.5) 14 (48.3)
1 77 (31.9) 66 (31.1) 11 (37.9)
2 22 (9.1) 18 (8.5) 4 (13.8)
≥ 3 4 (1.6) 4 (1.9) 0 (0)
Gastrointestinal bleeding, n (%) 171 (70.9) 157 (74) 14 (48.3)
Hepatic encephalopathy, n (%)    
Grade I–II 49 (20.3) 36 (16.9) 13 (44.8)
Grade III–IV 16 (6.6) 14 (6.6) 2 (6.9)
Ascites, n (%) 57 (23.6) 46 (21.7) 11 (37.9)
Bacterial infection, n (%) 61 (25.3) 41 (19.3) 20 (68.9)
Pneumonia 53 (22) 34 (16) 19 (65.5)
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis 8 (3.3) 5 (2.3) 3 (10.3)
Urinary tract infection 4 (1.6) 3 (1.4) 1 (3.4)
Empyema 1 (0.4) 1 (0.47) 0 (0)
Skin infection 4 (1.7) 4 (1.88) 0 (0)
Previous acute decompensation, n (%) 48 (20) 44 (20.7) 4 (13.8)
MAP (mmHg), mean ± SD 83.7 ± 14.7 84.2 ± 14.6 80.7 ± 14.9
SpO2/FiO2 ratio 461.9 (84.21–476.2) 466.6 (84.21–476.2) 306.2 (104.21–476.2)
Leucocyte count (× 103/µL) 8.4 (1.11–42.1) 8.06 (1.11–42.1) 13.2 (3.2–30.7)
Neutrophil count (× 103/µL) 5.9 (0.62–37.05) 5.8 (0.62–37.05) 10.2 (1.71–27.27)
Albumin (mg/dl), mean ± SD 2.7 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.5
Total bilirubin (mg/dl) 2.02 (0.4–57.8) 1.9 (0.4–40.9) 4.9 (0.8–57.8)
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 (0.13–9.3) 0.9 (0.3–5.7) 1.3 (0.13–9.3)
Sodium (mg/dl), mean ± SD 134.9 ± 6.4 135.5 ± 6.2 130.8 ± 6.4
Prothrombin time (sec) 13.3 (9.9–120) 12.8 (9.9–120) 15.4 (11–42.6)
MELD 12.8 (6.4–43.5) 12.4 (6.4–39.6) 22.8 (8.4–43.5)
MELD-Na 15.7 (6.4–43.3) 14.7 (6.4–39.6) 25.9 (12.6–43.3)
CLIF-C OF score 7 (6–13) 7 (6–13) 9 (6–13)
ACLF grade, n (%)a    
No ACLF 180 (74.7) 169 (79.7) 11 (37.9)
Grade 1 44 (18.3) 33 (15.6) 11(37.9)
Grade 2 12 (5) 6 (2.8) 6(20.7)
Grade 3 5 (2.1) 4 (1.9) 1 (3.4)
Causes of death, n (%)    
Septic shock    13 (44.8)
Hypovolemic shock    2 (6.9)
Respiratory failure    8 (27.6)
Liver failure    1 (3.4)
Cardiac arrest    3 (10.3)
Cause unknown    2 (6.9)
  1. Data are presented as medians (minimum–maximum) unless otherwise stated. MAP, Mean arterial pressure; MELD-Na, Model for end-stage liver disease-sodium; CLIF-C OF, Chronic liver failure-consortium organ failure; ACLF, Acute-on-chronic liver failure; NAFLD, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; HCC, Hepatocellular carcinoma; SD, Standard deviation
  2. aACLF grade and classification based on EASL clinical practice guideline [17]