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Table 2 Potential clinical manifestations of WD

From: Immunoglobulin a nephropathy as the first clinical presentation of Wilson disease: a case report and literature review

Target organ Clinical features
Liver Abnormal liver enzymes, asymptomatic hepatomegaly, acute or chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy, and fulminant hepatitis [4]
Nervous system Motor dysfunctions: dystonia, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, ataxia, dysarthria, oropharyngeal dysfunction; seizures [21]
  Nonmotor symptoms: school failure, personality disorders, mood changes, psychosis, cognitive abnormalities, sleep disorders, and autonomic disturbances, impulsiveness, sexual exhibitionism, inappropriate behavior [21]
Ophthalmologic manifestations Kayser–Fleischer ring; sunflower cataract [22]; slowing of saccades, impaired upgaze, and strabismus
Blood Hemolytic anemia (Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia) [23]; thrombocytopenia; HELLP syndrome; leukopenia
Kidney Glomerulonephritis; nephrotic syndrome; renal tubular function disorder (renal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria) [24]; IgA nephropathy [12]; IgM nephropathy [8]; Fanconi syndrome [25]; nephrolithiasis [26]
Musculoskeletal and joint diseases Osteoporosis; osseomuscular; arthritis or arthralgias [27]; muscle weakness [28]
Endocrine system Male feminization; paramenia [29]; habitual abortion [30]; infertility, sexual retardation [31]; hyperprolactinemia; hypoparathyroidism; insulinoma [32]; hypokalemia
Cardiovascular system Electrocardiographic abnormalities; cardiac interstitial fibrosis [33], myocarditis [33]
Others Pancreatitis [34]; cholangitis [35]; hyperpigmentation [36]; acanthosis nigricans [37]