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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of factors associated with H. pylori positive and negative

From: Helicobacter pylori infection in Iran: demographic, endoscopic and pathological factors

Demographic and clinical data Total
N = 233
n (%)
H. pylori positive N = 109
n (%)
H. pylori negative N = 124
n (%)
OR crude (95% CI) P Value OR adjusted (95% CI) P value
Gender
 Men 125 (53.6) 55 (44.0) 70 (56.0) 0.78 (0.46–1.31) 0.430 0.51 (0.20–1.33) 0.174
 Women 108 (46.4) 54 (50.0) 54 (50.0) Ref   Ref  
Age group
 < 35 57 (24.5) 21 (36.8) 36 (63.2) 1.25 (0.80–2.87) 0.196 0.72 (0.20–2.54) 0.612
 35–45 42 (18.0) 25 (59.5) 17 (40.5) 0.60 (0.29–1.21) 0.159 2.47 (0.81–7.53) 0.111
 > 45 134 (57.5) 63 (47.0) 71 (53.0) Ref Ref
BMI
 < 18.5 3 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 3 (100.0) N/A N/A
 18.5–24.9 35 (15.0) 17 (48.6) 18 (51.4) 1.52 (0.57–4.07) 0.398 1.76 (0.44–7.00) 0.420
 25–29.9 145 (62.2) 69 (47.6) 76 (52.4) 1.32 (0.57–3.04) 0.504 1.82 (0.61–5.35) 0.277
 > 30 50 (21.5) 23 (46.0) 27 (54.0) Ref Ref -
Number of family member
 < 3 93 (39.9) 37 (39.8) 56 (60.2) 0.62 (0.36–1.06) 0.084 0.74 (0.35–1.56) 0.428
 > 3 140 (60.1) 72 (51.4) 68 (48.6) Ref   Ref
Smoking
 Yes 79 (33.9) 33 (41.8) 46 (58.2) 0.73 (0.42–1.27) 0.332 0.68 (0.29–1.62) 0.395
 No 154 (66.1) 76 (49.4) 78 (50.6) Ref   Ref
Alcohol drink
 Yes 32 (13.7) 16 (50.0) 16 (50.0) 1.16 (0.55–2.45) 0.707 1.75 (0.60–5.08) 0.301
 No 201 (86.3) 93 (46.3) 108 (53.7) Ref   Ref
Education
 Illiterate 10 (4.3) 3 (30.0) 7 (70.0) 0.45 (0.11–1.87) 0.277 0.13 (0.02–0.84) 0.033
 Under diploma 47 (20.2) 24 (51.1) 23 (48.9) 1.11 (0.55–2.24) 0.765 0.43(0.12–1.58) 0.209
 Diploma 83 (35.6) 37 (44.6) 46 (55.4) 0.85 (0.47–1.55) 0.613 0.47 (0.17–1.28) 0.141
Upper graduated 93 (39.9) 45 (48.4) 48 (51.6) Ref Ref
Marital status
 Single 44 (18.9) 12 (27.3) 32 (72.7) 0.35 (0.17–0.73) 0.01 0.38 (0.12–1.13) 0.082
 Married 189 (81.1) 97 (51.1) 92 (48.9) Ref   Ref
Occupation
 Unemployed 56 (24.0) 32 (57.1) 24 (42.9) 2.24 (1.08–4.62) 0.029 6.70 (2.22–20.23) 0.001
 Housekeeping 71 (30.5) 32 (45.1) 39 (54.9) 1.37 (0.69–2.72) 0.356 1.03 (0.30–3.49) 0.951
 Employee 39 (16.7) 20 (51.3) 19 (48.7) 1.76 (0.79–3.93) 0.162 0.90 (0.28–2.80) 0.856
 Self employed 67 (28.8) 25 (37.3) 42 (62.7) Ref Ref
Drinking water source
 River 1 (0.4) 1 (100.0) 0 (0.0) N/A N/A
 Tap 153 (65.7) 68 (44.4) 85 (55.6) 0.85 (0.39–1.84) 0.688 0.97 (0.36–2.57) 0.957
 Mineral 48 (20.6) 25 (52.1) 23 (47.9) 1.15 (0.47–2.86) 0.748 1.07 (0.33–3.46) 0.909
 Tap and Mineral 31 (13.3) 15 (48.4) 16 (51.6) Ref Ref
Family history of gastrointestinal cancer
 Yes 44 (18.9) 30 (68.2) 14 (31.8) 2.98 (1.48–5.99) 0.002 3.52 (1.48–8.35) 0.004
 No 189 (81.9) 79 (41.8) 110 (58.2) Ref   Ref
Gastrointestinal sign and symptomsa
 Epigastric pain 157 (67.4) 85 (54.1) 72 (45.9) 2.70 (1.50- 4.83) 0.001 4.67 (1.92–11.34) 0.001
 Heartburn 107 (45.9) 24 (31.6) 52 (68.4) 1.06 (0.63–1.78) 0.895 1.83 (0.89–3.75) 0.009
 Reflux 76 (32.6) 34 (44.7) 42 (55.3) 0.88 (0.51–1.53) 0.677 1.35 (0.61–2.99) 0.458
 Weight loss 55 (23.6) 34 (61.8) 21 (38.2) 2.22 (1.19- 4.13) 0.013 3.38 (1.34–8.49) 0.009
 Decreased appetite 64 (27.5) 35 (54.7) 29 (45.3) 1.54 (0.86–2.76) 0.144 1.62 (0.69–3.78) 0.262
 Early satiety 17 (7.3) 8 (47.1) 9 (52.9) 1.01 (0.37–2.72) 0.981 1.73 (0.44–6.77) 0.425
 The presence of blood in the stool 9 (3.9) 2 (22.2) 7 (77.8) 0.31 (0.06–1.55) 0.181 0.66 (0.11–3.88) 0.654
 Iron deficiency anemia 27 (11.6) 15 (55.6) 12 (44.4) 1.48 (0.66–3.33) 0.413 1.62 (0.55–4.79) 0.378
  1. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant
  2. H. pylori Helicobacter pylori, BMI body mass index, OR odd ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. a%s may not add up to 100 as one patient be diagnosed with more than one Gastrointestinal sign and symptoms