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Table 2 Characteristics at the onset of AFLD or at the last visit of non-AFLD subjects

From: Obesity and metabolic abnormalities as risks of alcoholic fatty liver in men: NAGALA study

  No AFLD Incident AFLD P value
Number 472 168  
Habitual alcohol consumption, N (%) 209 (44.3) 91 (54.2) 0.027
Exerciser, N (%) 110 (23.3) 24 (14.3) 0.013
Never smoker, N (%) 47 (9.9) 9 (5.4) 0.028
Ex smoker, N (%) 173 (36.7) 79 (47)  
Current smoker, N (%) 252 (53.4) 80 (47.6)  
Diabetes, N (%) 28 (5.9) 23 (13.7) 0.0014
High blood pressure, N (%) 234 (49.6) 108 (64.3) 0.001
High blood glucose, N(%) 230 (48.7) 104 (61.9) 0.0033
High triglycerides, N (%) 98 (20.8) 76 (45.2) < 0.0001
Low HDL-cholesterol, N (%) 42 (8.9) 38 (22.6) < 0.0001
Age, year 54 (13) 52 (13) 0.043
BMI, kg/m2 22.3 (3.5) 24.2 (3.8) < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 127 (20.4) 130 (14.5) 0.0035
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 80 (14.5) 83.8 (10.6) 0.0005
Fasting blood glucose, mg/dl 99 (13) 103 (15.8) 0.0003
HbA1c, % 5.2 (0.5) 5.4 (0.7) 0.024
Total cholesterol, mg/dl 198 (47) 204 (43) 0.0023
Triglyserides, mg/dl 85.5 (71) 136 (125.8) < 0.0001
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dl 59 (23.7) 49.9 (19.7) < 0.0001
LDL-cholesterol, mg/dl 112.8 (45.8) 119.2 (48.6) 0.027
Non HDL-cholesterol, mg/dl 136.7 (49.8) 153.9 (49) < 0.0001
AST, IU/L 21 (9) 24 (13) < 0.0001
ALT, IU/L 20( 11) 25 (17) < 0.0001
GGT, IU/L 34.5 (36) 50 (59.7) < 0.0001
Alb, g/dl 4.2 (0.3) 4.3 (0.3) 0.68
Platelet, 104/mL 22.6 (6.8) 23.6 (8.1) 0.13
FIB4index 1.12 (0.7) 1.1 (0.68) 0.29
NAFLD Fibrosis score − 2.12 (1.49) − 2.19 (1.63) 0.90
Alcohol consumption, g/week 371 (244.7) 462 (310.9) 0.092
Body weight gain, kg 0.1 (3.6) 1.5 (3.5) < 0.0001
  1. Data are expressed as frequency (percentages %) for categorical variables, or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables. Comparisons between the groups were performed with the Pearson's chi-square test for categorical variables and with the Mann–Whitney U test or Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables
  2. HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, BMI body mass index, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, GGT γ-glutamyltransferase, Alb albumin