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Table 1 Patient sample characteristics

From: Health-related quality of life in outpatients with chronic liver disease: a cross-sectional study

  All patients (N = 254) MELD score*
n (%) Class I (N = 178)
n (%)
Class II (N = 76)
n (%)
Class III (N = 6)
n (%)
Age mean (SD), range 62.84 (11.75) (33–86) 62.28 (11.58) (34–86) 63.51 (12.02) (33–86) 70.17 (12.07) (50–82)
Females 107 (42.1) 81 (47.1) 24 (31.6) 2 (33.3)
Marital status (N = 249)     
Married 165 (65.0) 108 (64.3) 53 (69.7) 4 (66.7)
Divorced 34 (13.4) 21 (12.5) 12 (15.8) 1(16.7)
Widowed 29 (11.4) 20 (11.9) 8 (10.5) 1 (16.7)
Unmarried 21 (8.3) 18 (10.7) 3 (3.9) 0
Level of education (N = 249)     
Primary school 49 (19.7) 31 (18.6) 17 (22.4) 1 (16.7)
Secondary school 85 (33.5) 52 (31.1) 30 (39.5) 3 (50.0)
High school 87 (34.3) 62 (37.1) 23 (30.3) 2 (33.3)
University 28 (11.0) 22 (13.2) 6 (7.9) 0
Nationality     
Italian 232 (91.3) 157 (91.3) 69 (90.8) 6 (100.0)
Other 22 (8.7) 15 (8.7) 7 (9.2) 0
Type of CLD     
Compensated cirrhosis 102 (40.2) 58 (33.7) 40 (52.6) 4 (66.7)
Chronic hepatitis B, C, D, E virus infection 102 (40.2) 79 (45.9) 22 (28.9) 1 (16.7)
Autoimmune hepatitis Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) 24 (9.4) 20 (11.6) 4 (5.3) 0
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) 14 (5.5) 10 (5.8) 4 (5.3) 0
Decompensated cirrhosis 12 (2.9) 5 (7.9) 6 (16.7) 1 (0.4)
Duration of CLD     
 ≥ 5 years 176 (69.3) 124 (72.1) 48 (63.2) 4 (66.7)
Hospital stay during the last 12 months (days), mean (SD) (N = 68) 13.44 (22.46) 13.09 (28.72) 14.15 (15.68) 7.00 (0.00)
Comorbidity Index     
0 115 (45.3)    
1 40 (15.7) 28 (32.9) 11 (22.4) 1 (16.7)
2 11 (4.3) 7 (8.2) 2 (4.1) 2 (33.3)
3 52 (20.5) 27 (31.8) 24 (49.0) 1 (16.7)
4 14 (5.5) 8 (9.4) 5 (10.2) 1 (16.7)
5 10 (3.9) 5 (5.9) 4 (8.2) 1 (16.7)
6 6 (2.4) 4 (4.7) 2 (4.1) 0
7 5 (2.0) 5 (5.9) 0 0
8 1 (0.4) 0 1 (2.0) 0
Previous variceal sclerosis 68 (26.8) 31 (18.0) 35 (46.1) 2 (33.3)
Portacaval shunt or TIPS 11 (4.3) 6 (3.5) 5 (6.6) 0
Clinically detectable ascites (N = 247)     
Absent 192 (75.6) 146 (88.0) 43 (57.3) 3 (50.0)
Mild-to-moderate 7 (2.8) 2 (1.2) 5 (6.7) 0
Severe 8 (3.1) 3 (1.8) 5 (6.7) 0
Under loop-diuretic treatment 37 (14.6) 13 (7.8) 22 (29.3) 2 (33.3)
Under chronic albumin infusion 3 (1.2) 2 (1.2) 0 0
Clinically detectable encephalopathy (West-Haven criteria)a     
Grade I 13 (5.1) 10 (2.3) 8 (10.5) 1 (16.7)
None 241 (94.9) 168 (97.7) 68 (89.5) 5 (83.3)
CLD signs and symptoms (last month)     
Muscle cramps 79 (31.1) 50 (29.1) 27 (35.5) 2 (33.3)
Pruritus 60 (23.6) 31 (18.0) 27 (35.5) 2 (33.3)
Weakness and fatigue 47 (18.5) 32 (18.6) 15 (19.7) 0
Splenomegaly 46 (18.1)    
Arthralgia 42 (16.5) 29 (16.9) 11 (15.5) 2 (33.3)
General malaise 42 (16.5) 29 (16.9) 13 (17.1) 0
Fluid retention 29 (11.4) 17 (9.9) 11 (14.5) 1 (16.7)
Low grade fever 9 (3.5) 5 (2.9) 3 (3.9) 1 (16.7)
Jaundice 7 (2.8) 1 (0.6) 4 (5.3) 2 (33.3)
Anorexia 4 (1.6) 3 (1.7) 1 (1.3) 0
  1. SD, Standard deviation; CLD, Chronic liver disease; TIPS,Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
  2. *MELD score using the original mathematical formula: 9.57 × loge(creatinine) + 3.78 × Loge(total bilirubin) + 11.2 × Loge(INR) + 6.43 [21]. Patients were categorized into three groups, as proposed by the Wiesner and colleagues [27], where a higher MELD score indicates a worse degree of liver disease: class I (≤ 9), class II (10–19), class III (20–29), class IV (30–39)
  3. aWest-Haven criteria: grade I—trivial lack of awareness/sleep disorders -, grade II—lethargy -, grade III—somnolence to stupor -, grade IV—coma