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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics

From: Antimicrobial resistance in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and bacterial infections in a tertiary center in Northern Germany

Variable All patients Sampled patients*1 Period 1 (01/2012–12/2014)*1 Period 2 (01/2015–04/2018)*1 p value*2
Total number of patients 666 280 126 155  
Sex
 Female (n, %) 238 (35.7%) 97 (34.6%) 44 (34.9%) 53 (34.4%) 0.93
 Male (n, %) 428 (64.3%) 183 (65.4%) 82 (65.1%) 101 (65.6%) 0.93
Age (years) 56.7 (17–87) 57.3 (17.8–85.8) 56.9 (21.5–81) 57.7 (17.8–85.8) 0.54
 Days in hospital 15.5 (1–126) 23.0 (1–126) 24.5 (2–97) 22.0 (1–126) 0.11
 90-day mortality*3 148 (22.2%) 89 (31.8%) 38 (30.2%) 51 (33.1%) 0.60
Etiology of liver cirrhosis*4
Alcohol-related (n, %) 336 (50.5%) 130 (46.4%) 56 (44.4%) 74 (48.1%) 0.54
 HCV (n, %) 92 (13.8%) 37 (13.2%) 20 (15.9%) 17 (11.0%) 0.24
 HBV (n, %) 29 (4.4%) 10 (3.6%) 4 (3.2%) 6 (3.9%) 0.75
 NASH (n, %) 45 (6.8%) 27 (9.6%) 11 (8.7%) 16 (10.4%) 0.77
 Other (n, %) 226 (33.9%) 102 (36.4%) 45 (35.7%) 57 (37.0%) 0.82
Laboratory values at admission
 MELD 17.6 (6.43–40) 19.8 (7.9–40.0) 19.2 (8.6–40.0) 19.9 (7.9–40.0) 0.41
 INR 1.42 (0.97–5.64) 1.5 (1.0–5.6) 1.5 (1.1–3.4) 1.5 (1.0–5.6) 0.09
 Creatinine (µmol/l) 109.5 (30–878) 124.0 (32.0–878.0) 116.0 (40.0–691.0) 126.0 (32.0–878.0) 0.52
 Thrombocytes (× 103/µl) 117 (15–813) 113.5 (15.0–813.0) 110.5 (15.0–490.0) 123.0 (17.0–813.0) 0.28
 CRP (mg/l) 24 (0.4–433) 28.1 (0.9–433.0) 26.0 (2.0–433.0) 30.8 (0.9–266.0) 0.78
 Bilirubin (µmol/l) 42 (3–786) 54.0 (3.0–786.0) 54.0 (4.0–786.0) 54.0 (3.0–676.0) 0.85
 Sodium (mmol/l) 134 (115–149) 134.0 (115.0–149.0) 134.0 (117.0–145.0) 134.0 (115.0–149.0) 0.95
 Leucocytes (× 103/µl) 7.6 (1.1–83.4) 8.5 (1.9–83.4) 8.6 (2.3–83.4) 8.5 (1.9–35.5) 0.90
Patients with SBP (n, %) 262 (39.3%) 205 (73.2%) 91 (72.5%) 114 (77.3%) 0.74
Patients with BSI (n, %) 49 (7.4%) 49 (17.5%) 28 (22.2%) 21 (13.6%) 0.06
Patients with UTI (n, %) 153 (23.0%) 93 (33.2%) 37 (29.4%) 56 (36.4%) 0.22
Patients with at least one infection (n, %) 354 (53.2%)     
Patients with one of the three infection (n, %) 256 (38.4%) 219 (78.2%) 100 (79.4%) 119 (77.3%) 0.67
Patients with two of the three infections (n, %) 86 (12.9%) 55 (19.6%) 22 (17.5%) 33 (21.4%) 0.41
Patients with all three infections (n, %) 12 (1.8%) 6 (2.1%) 4 (3.2%) 2 (1.3%) 0.28
Patients with microbiological sampling during infection (n, %) 281 (42.2%)     
Patients with at least one positive microbiological sample (n, %) 160 (24.0%) 159 (56.8%) 76 (60.3%) 83 (53.9%) 0.28
  1. *1Only patients with microbiological sampling during infection included. One patient was excluded because the time of his infection overlapped the cutoff date for both periods
  2. *2Comparison of the two groups “period 1” and “period 2”
  3. *3The 90 days were counted starting from the end of hospitalization
  4. *470 patients (32 sampled patients, 14 in period 1, 18 in period 2) had more than one etiology of cirrhosis
  5. Categorical variables are expressed as the number and percentage of the total study group or subgroup. Continuous variables are expressed as median and range
  6. HCV hepatitis C virus, HBV hepatitis B virus, NASH nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, MELD model for end-stage liver disease, INR International normalized ratio of prothrombin time, CRP C-reactive protein, SBP spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, BSI bloodstream infection, UTI urinary tract infection; n, number of patients