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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with acute variceal bleeding (n = 546)

From: Impact of acute kidney injury on mortality in patients with acute variceal bleeding

  All patients (n = 546) No AKI (n = 393) AKI (n = 153) P
Age, year 58.0 (51.0–68.0) 58.0 (51.5–68.0) 58.0 (51.0–67.0) 0.810
Male sex 459 (84.1%) 326 (83.0%) 133 (86.9%) 0.298
Bleeding source     0.360
 Esophageal varices 425 (77.8%) 310 (78.9%) 115 (75.2%)  
 Gastric varices 121 (22.2%) 83 (21.1%) 38 (24.8%)  
Active bleeding at endoscopy 232 (42.5%) 161 (41.0%) 71 (46.4%) 0.250
Etiology     0.538
 Alcohol 353 (64.7%) 247 (62.8%) 106 (69.3%)  
 HBV 108 (19.8%) 83 (21.1%) 25 (16.3%)  
 HCV 39 (7.1%) 29 (7.4%) 10 (6.5%)  
 Cryptogenic 46 (8.4%) 34 (8.7%) 12 (7.8%)  
BMI, kg/m2 22.9 (20.7–25.0) 22.9 (20.8–24.9) 23.1 (20.5–25.3) 0.602
Diabetes 184 (33.7%) 128 (32.6%) 56 (36.6%) 0.420
HCC 82 (15.0%) 44 (11.2%) 38 (24.8%)  < 0.001
Child–Pugh classification      < 0.001
 A 158 (28.9%) 133 (33.8%) 25 (16.3%)  
 B 265 (48.5%) 198 (50.4%) 67 (43.8%)  
 C 123 (22.5%) 62 (15.8%) 61 (39.9%)  
MELD score 12.0 (10.0–18.0) 11.0 (9.0–14.0) 19.0 (14.0–25.0)  < 0.001
Ascites 293 (53.7%) 199 (50.6%) 94 (61.4%) 0.028
Encephalopathy 49 (9.0%) 23 (5.9%) 26 (17.0%)  < 0.001
Diuretics 177 (32.5%) 116 (29.6%) 61 (39.9%) 0.025
Hemoglobin, g/dL 8.7 (7.5–10.0) 9.0 (7.7–10.2) 8.0 (6.9–9.0)  < 0.001
Platelet, × 109/L 84.5 (59.0–118.3) 84.0 (69.5–113.0) 85.0 (55.0–133.0) 0.602
PT-INR 1.43 (1.26–1.69) 1.37 (1.25–1.57) 1.69 (1.42–2.08)  < 0.001
Bilirubin, mg/dL 1.43 (0.89–2.67) 1.30 (0.83–2.30) 1.87 (1.01–4.00)  < 0.001
Albumin, g/dL 2.9 (2.5–3.4) 3.0 (2.6–3.4) 2.7 (2.2–3.0)  < 0.001
sCr at admission, mg/dL 0.79 (0.64–1.00) 0.73 (0.63–0.89) 1.12 (0.84–1.58)  < 0.001
Baseline sCr, mg/dL 0.71 (0.61–0.86) 0.71 (0.60–0.84) 0.75 (0.62–0.92) 0.009
Failure to control bleeding 32 (5.9%) 11 (2.8%) 21 (13.7%)  < 0.001
Variceal rebleeding 38 (7.0%) 27 (6.9%) 11 (7.2%) 0.854
  1. HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; BMI, body mass index; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; MELD score, Model For End-Stage Liver Disease score; PT-INR, prothrombin time-international normalized ratio. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) for continuous data and percentages for categorical data