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Table 2 Prognostic factors for survival

From: Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of signet ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder

Characteristic Overall survival Cancer-specific survival
Univariate analysis Multivariate a Univariate Analysis Multivariate analysis
HR (95% CI) P Value HR (95% CI) P Value HR (95% CI) P Value HR (95% CI) P Value
Age, years         
 ≤ 60 Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 > 60 1.428 (1.384–1.473) 0.001 1.484 (1.383–1.594) 0.001 1.516 (1.459–1.575) 0.001 1.357 (1.266–1.456) 0.001
Sex         
Male Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Female 0.950 (0.922–0.980) 0.001 0.894 (0.833–0.960) 0.002 0.953 (0.923–0.984) 0.003 0.900 (0.845–0.959) 0.001
Race         
White Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Black 0.980 (0.935–1.027) 0.395 1.065 (0.965–1.175) 0.210 0.967 (0.920–1.016) 0.182 0.995 (0.913–1.085) 0.914
Other 0.847 (0.808–0.888)  < 0.001 0.907 (0.815–1.009) 0.073 0.862 (0.822–0.905)  < 0.001 0.882 (0.804–0.967) 0.008
Clinical T-stage         
T1–2 Reference     Reference    
T3–4 2.710 (2.584–2.841)  < 0.001    2.636 (2.504–2.774)  < 0.001   
Lymph node metastasis         
No Reference     Reference    
Yes 1.425 (1.359–1.494)  < 0.001    1.406 (1.337–1.479)  < 0.001   
Distant metastasis         
No Reference     Reference    
Yes 3.101 (2.965–3.244)  < 0.001    3.031 (2.889–3.180)  < 0.001   
AJCC clinical stage         
I–II Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
III–IV 3.210 (3.066–3.361)  < 0.001 2.807 (2.519–3.041)  < 0.001 3.105 (2.956–3.261)  < 0.001 2.816 (2.622–3.023)  < 0.001
Surgery         
No Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Yes 0.370 (0.355–0.387)  < 0.001 0.575 (0.519–0.637)  < 0.001 0.345 (0.332–0.359)  < 0.001 0.525 (0.481–0.573)  < 0.001
Radiation         
No Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Yes 0.605 (0.578–0.634)  < 0.001 0.908 (0.820–1.006) 0.065 0.602 (0.573–0.632)  < 0.001 0.966 (0.882–1.057) 0.450
Chemotherapy         
No Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Yes 0.848 (0.821–0.875)  < 0.001 0.801 (0.738–0.869)  < 0.001 0.837 (0.810–0.865)  < 0.001 0.673 (0.627–0.722)  < 0.001
Histologic grade         
Well-moderate Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Poor-undifferentiated 1.838 (1.774–1.903)  < 0.001 1.632 (1.527–1.745)  < 0.001 1.826 (1.759–1.894)  < 0.001 1.686 (1.589–1.789)  < 0.001
Histology         
Non-SRC Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
SRC 1.184 (1.063–1.320) 0.002 1.256 (1.035–1.523) 0.021 1.157 (1.027–1.304) 0.016 1.211 (1.012–1.447) 0.036
Year of diagnosis         
1998–2009 Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
2010–2016 0.796 (0.771–0.823)  < 0.001 0.912 (0.848–0.981) 0.013 0.800 (0.773–0.828)  < 0.001 0.884 (0.834–0.937)  < 0.001
Marital status         
Unmarried Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Married 0.819 (0.796–0.842)  < 0.001 0.865 (0.809–0.924)  < 0.001 1.249 (1.213–1.286)  < 0.001 1.221 (1.151–1.295)  < 0.001
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer, SRC signet ring cell carcinoma