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Table 1 Patient background and clinical parameters

From: Measurement of fasting breath hydrogen concentration as a simple diagnostic method for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

  PEI group (n = 30) Non-PEI group (n = 30) P value
Age, median [range] 71.0 [46–87] 71.0 [40–81] 1.000
Sex, male: female 24: 6 22: 8 0.542
BMI, median [range] 21.585 [15.99–28.07] 21.090 [15.24–26.38] 0.255
History of alcohol intake, n (%) 19 (63.3) 19 (63.3) 1.000
Heavy drinkers, n (%) 7 (23.3) 1 (3.3) 0.023
Smoking history, n (%) 17 (56.7) 19 (63.3) 0.598
Pancreatic disease    
 PC, n (%) 11 (36.7) 12 (40.0) 0.791
 CP, n (%) 8 (26.7) 3 (10.0) 0.095
 Other pancreatic disease, n (%) 11 (36.7) 10 (33.3) 0.761
Concomitant diseases    
 Hypertension, n (%) 10 (33.3) 15 (50.0) 0.190
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 10 (33.3) 11 (36.7) 0.787
 Diabetes, n (%) 14 (46.7) 13 (43.3) 0.795
Blood test findings    
 Hb (g/dL) [range] 13.50 [7.9–15.5] 13.50 [10.9–15.9] 0.877
 BUN (mg/dL) [range] 16.05 [3.7–29.2] 15.75 [6.2–26.9] 1.000
 Cre (mg/dL) [range] 0.775 [0.49–1.32] 0.730 [0.42–1.24] 0.225
 TP (g/dL) [range] 7.00 [5.5–8.0] 7.20 [6.2–7.8] 0.716
 Alb (g/dL) [range] 3.95 [1.4–4.5] 4.20 [3.6–4.7] 0.006
 Amy (IU/L) [range] 83.5 [30–374] 74.5 [36–350] 0.877
 Lipase (IU/L) [range] 48.5 [4–781] 34.5 [10–889] 0.706
 HbA1c (NGSP %) [range] 6.65 [4.9–13.7] 6.20 [4.9–10.5] 0.195
 CEA (ng/mL) [range] 3.2 [1.0–44.4] 2.6 [0.7–105.8] 0.261
 CA19-9 (U/mL) [range] 119.50 [< 1–23210] 61.50 [< 1–197000] 0.446
Imaging findings    
 Pancreatic hypertrophy, n (%) 9 (30.0) 3 (10.0) 0.053
 Calcification, n (%) 4 (13.3) 2 (6.7) 0.389
 Pancreatic cyst, n (%) 6 (20.0) 5 (16.7) 0.739
 MPD dilatation, n (%) 19 (63.3) 13 (43.3) 0.121
 MPD stenosis, n (%) 20 (66.7) 12 (40.0) 0.038
 Normal pancreas, n (%) 0 (0.0) 5 (16.7) 0.020
  1. PEI pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, BMI body mass index, PC pancreatic carcinoma, CP chronic pancreatitis, Hb hemoglobin, BUN blood urea nitrogen, Cre creatinine, TP total protein, Alb albumin, Amy amylase, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, NGSP national glycohemoglobin standardization program, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9 carbohydrate antigen 19-9, MPD major pancreatic duct