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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of obese subjects by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

From: Association of circulating adipsin with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adults: a cross-sectional study

Variables Overall NAFLD Non-NAFLD p value
Sample size 1163 657 506  
Age (years) 53.2 ± 7.3 53.7 ± 7.3 52.6 ± 7.2 0.008
Gender (male n, %) 299 (25.7) 207 (34.0) 92 (21.9) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 ± 3.0 28.2 ± 3.1 26.4 ± 2.5 <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 93.4 ± 7.0 95.3 ± 7.2 91.1 ± 5.9 <0.001
Current smokers (n, %) 135(12.6) 91(14.5) 44(10.2) 0.006
Systolic BP (mmHg) 133.3 ± 17.8 136.3 ± 17.7 129.4 ± 17.3 <0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79.2 ± 10.6 81.1 ± 10.6 76.7 ± 10.1 <0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.53 (1.03–2.22) 1.84 (1.32–2.57) 1.18 (0.86–1.71) <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.89 ± 1.07 6.00 ± 1.07 5.74 ± 1.05 <0.001
LDL- cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.68 ± 0.97 3.72 ± 1.01 3.64 ± 0.92 0.161
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.37 ± 0.30 1.31 ± 0.27 1.45 ± 0.31 <0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 6.08 ± 1.64 6.28 ± 1.90 5.82 ± 1.19 <0.001
2-h glucose (mmol/L) 8.81 ± 3.81 9.58 ± 4.13 7.80 ± 3.07 <0.001
HOMA-IR 2.88 (2.09–4.16) 3.46 (2.49–5.00) 2.38 (1.68–3.24) <0.001
ALT (U/L) 24.4 ± 14.7 27.8 ± 17.0 20.1 ± 9.5 <0.001
AST (U/L) 22.2 ± 7.3 23.4 ± 8.1 20.7 ± 5.9 <0.001
GGT (U/L) 34.2 ± 22.7 38.8 ± 24.0 28.2 ± 19.4 <0.001
Serum adipsin (ug/ml) 5.39 ± 2.32 5.24 ± 1.97 5.57 ± 2.70 0.017
Body fat mass(kg) 24.1 ± 5.3 25.0 ± 5.6 23.0 ± 4.7 <0.001
FIB-4 value 0.95 ± 0.41 0.93 ± 0.38 0.97 ± 0.45 0.158
Liver fibrosis (n, %)     0.317
FIB-4 Low 991 (85.2) 566 (86.2) 425 (84.0)  
FIB-4 Intermediate 167 (14.4) 87 (13.2) 80 (15.8)  
FIB-4 High 5 (0.4) 4 (0.6) 1 (0.2)  
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± SD or median (interquartile range)
  2. BMI = body mass index; HOMA-IR = homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; NAFLD = nonalcoholic fatty liver; FIB-4 = fibrosis-4 index