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Table 2 Cox proportional hazard regression model for analyzing the prognostic factors for colorectal cancer patients at IV stage

From: Nomogram for predicting overall survival in colorectal cancer with distant metastasis

Subject characteristics Univariate Multivariate
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Age     
 < 65 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 ≥ 65 1.60 (1.51–1.70) < 0.001 1.37 (1.29–1.46) < 0.001
Gender     
 Male 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference)  
 Female 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 0.478 - -
Marital status     
 Married 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Unmarried 1.34 (1.26–1.42) < 0.001 1.20 (1.13–1.27) < 0.001
Race     
 White 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Black 1.08 (0.99–1.17) 0.070 1.12 (1.03–1.22) 0.005
 Others 0.89 (0.81–0.99) 0.034 0.86 (0.77–0.95) 0.003
Insurance     
 Insured 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Uninsured 1.25 (1.10–1.42) 0.001 1.13 (0.99–1.29) 0.066
Primary site     
 Left colon 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Right colon 1.35 (1.27–1.43) < 0.001 1.26 (1.18–1.35) < 0.001
 Other sites 1.55 (1.27–1.88) < 0.001 1.35 (1.10–1.64) 0.003
Grade     
 Grade I 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Grade II 1.05 (0.92–1.21) 0.463 1.08 (0.94–1.23) 0.303
 Grade III 1.73 (1.50–1.99) < 0.001 1.70 (1.48–1.97) < 0.001
 Grade IV 1.80 (1.50–2.15) < 0.001 1.93 (1.61–2.32) < 0.001
CEA     
 Normal 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Elevated 1.46 (1.35–1.57) < 0.001 1.39 (1.29–1.50) < 0.001
T stage     
 T1 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 T2 0.41 (0.33–0.51) < 0.001 0.66 (0.53–0.83) < 0.001
 T3 0.54 (0.49–0.60) < 0.001 0.84 (0.75–0.95) 0.004
 T4 0.77 (0.70–0.85) < 0.001 1.11 (0.99–1.25) 0.071
N stage     
 N0 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 N1 0.94 (0.87–1.01) 0.095 1.16 (1.07–1.26) < 0.001
 N2 1.15 (1.07–1.24) < 0.001 1.55 (1.43–1.69) < 0.001
Bone metastasis     
 No 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Yes 2.02 (1.77–2.30) < 0.001 1.57 (1.37–1.80) < 0.001
Brain metastasis     
 No 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Yes 1.98 (1.54–2.54) < 0.001 1.44 (1.11–1.86) 0.005
Liver metastasis     
 No 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Yes 1.12 (1.05–1.19) 0.001 1.34 (1.25–1.43) < 0.001
Lung metastasis     
 No 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Yes 1.37 (1.28–1.47) < 0.001 1.30 (1.21–1.4) < 0.001
Surgery for primary site     
 No 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Yes 0.53 (0.49–0.56) < 0.001 0.43 (0.39–0.47) < 0.001
Radiation     
 No/unknown 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Yes 0.81 (0.74–0.88) < 0.001 0.95 (0.86–1.04) 0.255
Chemotherapy     
 No/unknown 1 (reference) 1.00 1 (reference) 1.00
 Yes 0.34 (0.32–0.36) < 0.001 0.35 (0.32–0.37) < 0.001
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval