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Table 3 Characteristics of patients with HCV according to PNPLA3 polymorphisms (n = 364)

From: The role of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms on liver fibrosis and metabolic abnormalities in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C

  CC CG % / (n) or mean ± SD GG P value
Age (years) 53.75 ± 12.9 55.94 ± 12.52 52.04 ± 12.03 0.191
Men /Women (n) 48.7% (91)/51.3% (96) 42% (63)/58% (87) 33.3% (9)/66.7% (18) 0.218
Race     
  White 75.9% (142) 77.3% (116) 77.8% (21) 0.699
  Multiracial (Brown) 15.5% (29) 13.3% (20) 7.4% (2)  
  Black 8.6% (16) 9.3% (14) 14.8% (4)  
Type 2 diabetes (n) 23.4% (43) 25.7% (38) 7.7% (2) 0.133
Dyslipidemia (n) 21.2% (39) 21.1% (31) 3.9% (1) 0.103
High-blood pressure (n) 42.9% (79) 45.3% (67) 38.4% (10) 0.786
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (n) 30.8% (57) 30.4% (45) 15.4% (4) 0.259
BMI 27.67 ± 4.94 27.9 ± 5.24 25.19 ± 3.7 0.046* (GG < CG/CC)
Metabolic syndrome (n) 25.7% (47) 24.3% (36) 0% (0) 0.013*
Hypothyroidism (n) 17.4% (32) 16.9% (25) 19.2% (5) 0.958
Previous alcohol use (n) 8.7% (16) 7.4% (11) 7.7% (2) 0.913
HOMA-IR value ≥ 2.5 (n) 51.9% (97) 55.3% (83) 44.4% (12) 0.547
HOMA-IR 3.19 ± 4.65 3.33 ± 3.94 2.46 ± 2.71 0.293
AST (U/L) 66.11 ± 59.4 59.62 ± 37.57 66.63 ± 51.98 0.929
ALT (U/L) 71.82 ± 55.08 64.68 ± 43.82 73 ± 62.14 0.505
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L) 84.61 ± 33.1 82.71 ± 38.26 73.26 ± 20.73 0.196
GGT (U/L) 103.74 ± 115.94 104.09 ± 110.33 78.89 ± 62.5 0.761
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.9 ± 0.77 0.87 ± 0.35 0.88 ± 0.39 0.956
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 157.32 ± 37.85 158.26 ± 35.08 151.96 ± 29.2 0.752
HDL (mg/dL) 51.34 ± 16.01 52.32 ± 16.52 56.33 ± 17.43 0.466
LDL (mg/dL) 85.21 ± 32.12 85.89 ± 30.46 79.22 ± 30.06 0.541
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 104.16 ± 46.95 101.93 ± 60.93 86.7 ± 34.53 0.117
Liver histology     
  Fibrosis (n) 0–1 35.3% (66) 35.3% (53) 37.0% (10)  
  2–4 64.7% (121) 64.7% (97) 63.0% (17) 0.983 
  Inflammation (n) 0–1 44.2% (69) 46.6% (55) 52% (13)  
  2–3 55.8% (87) 53.4% (63) 48% (12) 0.750 
  Steatosis (n) 0 48.7% (91) 41.2% (61) 33.3% (9)  
  1–3 51.3% (96) 58.8% (87) 66.7% (18) 0.190 
  1. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Mann–Whitney, and Kruskal–Wallis test
  2. ALT: alanine aminotransferase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; BMI: body mass index; HCV: hepatitis C virus; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR: Homeostatic Model of Assessment; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; GGT: gamma glutamyl transferase; SD: standard deviation
  3. *p value < 0.05