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Table 4 Predictors of complicated disease, disease with complications and treatment refractory disease in CD

From: Changing phenotype, early clinical course and clinical predictors of inflammatory bowel disease in Sri Lanka: a retrospective, tertiary care-based, multi-centre study

Characteristic Complicated disease Treatment refractory disease
Male gender 1.45 (0.78–2.70) 1.63 (0 .72–3.69)
Age < 30 years   
30–50 years 1.35 (0.66–2.76) 0.16 (0.062–0.43)
 > 50 years 0.47 (0.20–1.11) 0.06 (0.01–0.25)
Having tertiary education 0.81 (0.39–1.71) 1.13 (0.41–3.08)
Employed 1.24 (0.65–2.37) 0.68 (0.28–1.67)
Ever smoker 1.39 (0.42–4.58) 0.77 (0.18–3.34)
Appendicectomy 1.38 (0.42–4.52)
Family history of IBD 1.44 (0.31–6.63) 1.60 (0.36–7.15)
Diagnosed after 2009 0.28 (0.13–0.62) 2.62 (0.88–7.75)
Diabetes 0.14 (0.02–1.13)
Obesity (BMI > 25) 1.02 (0.50–2.11) 0.19 (0.05–0.83)
Extra intestinal involvement 2.68 (1.42–5.09) 1.17 (0.51–2.66)
Severe disease at presentation 25.78 (5.75–115.49) 3.37 (1.40–8.15)
  1. Expressed as odds ratio (OR) and standard deviation (SD)
  2. Bold values indicate significant at p < 0.05