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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with gastrointestinal cytomegaloviral infection

From: Patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and factors associated with gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent patients

 Immunocompetent (n = 56)Immunocompromised (n = 117)P
Age, year (mean ± SD)73.0 ± 13.948.6 ± 16.4<.0001
Male gender31 (55.4%)72 (61.5%)0.44
Immunocompromised conditions
 HIV infection034 (29.1%) CD4 (median 19, 1–187) 
 Transplantation024 (20.5%) 
 Cancers receiving chemotherapy021 (17.9%) 
 Autoimmune diseases2 (3.6%) (not receive steroid, immunosuppressant)30 (25.6%) 
 Inflammatory bowel diseases (CD = 3, UC = 8)1 (1.8%) (not receive steroid, immunosuppressant)10 (8.6%) 
 Other conditions requiring corticosteroids 8 (6.8%) 
a10 patients had two underlying conditions
Medications
 Corticosteroids070 (40.5%) 
 Chemotherapy021 (18.0%) 
 Immunosuppressive agents044 (37.6%) 
Underlying diseases
 Diabetes mellitus20 (35.7%)21 (18.0%)0.010
 Large vessel atherosclerotic diseases21 (37.5%)14 (12.0%)< 0.0001
 Chronic kidney disease13 (23.2%)28 (23.9%)0.917
 • Stage 3
 • Stage 4
 • Stage 5
6 (46.2%)
1 (7.6%)
6 (46.2%)
6 (21.4%)
5 (17.9%)
17 (60.7%)
0.244
 Cirrhosis2 (3.6%)4 (3.4%)>.99
 • Child-Pugh A
 • Child-Pugh B
 • Child-Pugh C
0 (0%)
1 (50%)
1 (50%)
1 (25%)
3 (75%)
0 (0%)
0.269
Status conditions at diagnosis
 Clinical Setting  0.024
 • Outpatient
 • Inpatient
 • Intensive care
23 (41.1%)
21 (37.5%)
12 (21.4%)
69 (59.0%)
38 (32.5%)
10 (8.6%)
 
 Bacteremia4 (7.1%)11 (9.4%)0.776
 Systemic inflammatory response syndrome29 (52.7%)53 (45.7%)0.39
 Respiratory failure20 (35.7%)25 (21.4%)0.04
 Inotropic drugs19 (33.9%)10 (8.6%)<.0001
 Acute renal failure22 (39.3%)26 (22.2%)0.02
Presentation
 Median presenting duration, days (range)1 (1–60)10 (1–210)0.0015
 GI bleeding40 (71.4%)45 (38.5%)<.0001
 Diarrhea18 (32.1%)63 (53.8%)0.007
 Abdominal pain9 (16.1%)39 (33.3%)0.018
 Fever27 (49.1%)66 (56.4%)0.369
 Severe ileus4 (7.1%)3 (2.6%)0.215
 Perforation1 (1.8%)3 (2.6%)>.99
 CMV at other organs0 (0%)8 (6.8%)0.055
Investigations
 CMV viral load (n = 112)
 • Median (range, IQR)370 (0–85,599, 4951)2736 (0–2,988,940, 27,074)0.010
 • CMV VL = 011/27 (40.7%)11/85 (12.9%)0.002
Location involvement
 Esophagus4 (7.1%)14 (12.0%)0.430
 Stomach10 (17.9%)32 (27.4%)0.173
 Duodenum1 (1.8%)11 (9.4%)0.106
 Jejunum1 (1.8%)4 (3.4%)>.999
 Ileum13 (23.2%)27 (23.1%)0.984
 Colon (rectum not included)33 (58.9%)70 (59.8%)0.910
 Rectum14 (25.0%)31 (26.5%)0.834
Endoscopic findings
 EGDN = 14N = 45 
  Ulcer13 (92.9%)37 (82.2%)0.671
  Inflammatory mucosa6 (42.9%)25 (55.6%)0.406
  Mass2 (14.3%)0 (0%)0.053
 ColonoscopyN = 40N = 80 
  Ulcer33 (82.5%)55 (68.8%)0.108
  Inflammatory mucosa26 (65.0%)53 (66.3%)0.892
  Mass4 (10%)4 (5.0%)0.301
 Balloon-assisted enteroscopyN = 1N = 2 
  Ulcer1 (100%)2 (100%) 
  Inflammatory mucosa1 (100%)2 (100%) 
  Mass0 (0%)0 (0%) 
Treatment and outcomes
 Medications
  • Ganciclovir36/51 (70.6%)105/114 (92.1%)0.0003
  • Valganclovir3/51 (5.9%)15/114 (13.2%)0.278
  • Surgery6/51 (11.8%)9/114 (7.9%)0.424
  • None13/51 (25.5%)5/114 (4.4%)<.0001
 Median duration of treatment, week (range)3 (0–6)3 (0–28)0.003
 Death in 6 months  0.047**
  • in 1 month11/51 (21.6%)16/114 (14.0%) 
  • in 6 months20/51 (39.2%)25/114 (21.9%) 
 Mucosal healingc
  • in 6 weeks6/9 (66.7%)7/20 (35%)0.226
  • at or after 6 weeks8/9 (88.9%)16/19 (67.9%)> 0.99
  1. a Ten patients had two underlying condition including 4 with glomerulonephritis undergoing renal transplantation, 3 with hematologic malignancies undergoing bone marrow transplantation, one with HIV and ITP, one with ulcerative colitis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and one with malignant thymoma and myasthenia gravis
  2. blog-rank test
  3. conly the patients who did not have underlying gastrointestinal disease