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Table 4 Symptoms, classification, and risk factors of ESLD patients at presentation

From: Ambulatory end-stage liver disease in Ghana; patient profile and utility of alpha fetoprotein and aspartate aminotransferase: platelet ratio index

  HCC
n/Na (%)
Cirrhosis
n/Na (%)
p value
Abdominal pain or discomfort 110/129 (85.2) 122/204 (59.8) < 0.001
Jaundice 38/128 (29.7) 59/204 (28.9) 0.88
Weight loss 115/128 (89.8) 172/204 (84.3) 0.15
Anorexia 67/128 (52.3) 64/205 (31.2) < 0.001
Fever 61/126 (48.4) 85/203 (41.9) 0.25
Ascites (clinically determined)
 None 60/133 (45.1) 57/203 (28.1) 0.001
 Mild 24/133 (18.0) 60/203 (29.6) 0.02
 Moderate–Severe 49/133 (36.8) 86/203 (42.4) 0.3
Hepatic encephalopathy
 None 118/129 (91.5) 194/202 (96.0) 0.08
 Grade 1–2 11/129 (8.5) 8/202 (4.0) 0.08
Child–Pugh Class
 A 12/32 (37.5) 17/83 (20.5) 0.01
 B 15/32 (46.8) 35/83 (42.2) 0.9
 C 5/32 (15.6%) 31/83 (37.3) 0.01
Risk factors
 HBV 98 (69.5) 102 (47.2) < 0.001
 HCV 9 (6.4) 8 (3.7) 0.3
 Alcohol 15 (10.6) 63 (29.2) < 0.001
 Autoimmune 1 (0.7) 4 (1.9) 0.3
 NAFLD 0 (0) 3 (1.4) 0.1
 Unknownb 22 (15.6) 40 (18.5) 0.4
  1. aThe total number of patients was 141 HCC, 216 liver cirrhosis and 218 chronic HBV, however not all questions were answered by all participants
  2. bUnknown after testing for viral hepatitis and without history suggestive of other causes