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Table 3 Characteristics and intraoperative factors in patients who underwent esophagectomy under HALS

From: Vertical distance from navel as a risk factor for bowel obstruction associated with feeding jejunostomy after esophagectomy: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Total With BOFJ Without BOFJ p value (univariate)
n (%) or median (range)
Patients 28 6 22  
Preoperative factors     
Age (years) 67 (52–86) 64 (52–82) 69 (52–86) 0.622*
Sex     
 Male 27 (96%) 5 (19%) 22 (81%) 0.051
 Female 1 (4%) 1 (100%) 0 (0%)  
BMI (kg/m2) 19 (12–26) 20 (15–26) 19 (12–26) 0.462*
Serum total protein (mg/dL) 7.0 (5.9–7.5) 7.1 (6.3–7.5) 6.9 (5.9–7.5) 0.421*
Serum albumin (mg/dL) 4.1 (3.2–4.9) 4.3 (3.3–4.3) 4.0 (3.2–4.9) 0.878*
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy 1 (3.6%) 0 1 (100%) 0.595
Adjuvant chemotherapy 24 (86%) 5 (21%) 19 (79%) 0.851
Pathological stage     
 I 9 (32%) 4 (44%) 5 (56%) 0.221
 II 6 (21%) 1 (17%) 5 (83%)  
 III 12 (43%) 1 (8%) 11 (92%)  
 IV 1 (4%) 0 1 (100%)  
COPD 2 (7.1%) 1 (50%) 1 (50%) 0.307
Hypertension 8 (29%) 1 (12%) 7 (88%) 0.466
Current smoker 14 (50%) 5 (36%) 9 (64%) 0.065
Intraoperative factors     
Distance between navel and jejunostomy     
Straight distance (mm) 97 (51–150) 117 (101–130) 89 (51–150) < 0.001*
Vertical distance (mm) 83 (28–135) 107 (93–120) 79 (28–135) 0.010*
Horizontal distance (mm) 47 (22–60) 48 (40–59) 46 (22–60) 0.199*
Surgical duration (min) 417 (309–498) 409 (347–464) 421 (309–498) 0.860*
Estimated blood loss (mL) 145 (5–1030) 122 (90–150) 173 (5–1030) 0.341**
Length of button (cm) 4.0 (3.0–4.0) 3.5 (3.0–4.0) 4.0 (3.0–4.0) 0.475**
  1. BOFJ, bowel obstruction associated with feeding jejunostomy; BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HALS, hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery
  2. Chi-square test
  3. *Unpaired t test
  4. ** Mann–Whitney test
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