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Table 2 Patient characteristics and intraoperative factors in all patients

From: Vertical distance from navel as a risk factor for bowel obstruction associated with feeding jejunostomy after esophagectomy: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Total With BOFJ Without BOFJ p value (univariate)
n (%) or median (range)
Patients 70 6 64  
Preoperative factors     
Age (years) 68 (46–91) 64 (52–82) 69 (46–91) 0.415*
Sex     
 Male 65 (93%) 5 (8%) 60 (92%) 0.343
 Female 5 (7%) 1 (20%) 4 (80%)  
BMI (kg/m2) 19 (12–34) 20 (15–26) 18 (12–34) 0.563**
Serum total protein (mg/dL) 6.9 (5.7–7.9) 7.1 (6.3–7.5) 6.9 (5.7–7.9) 0.297*
Serum albumin (mg/dL) 4 (2.9–4.9) 4.3 (3.3–4.3) 4 (2.9–4.9) 0.735*
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy 14 (20%) 0 14 (22%) 0.200
Adjuvant chemotherapy 50 (71%) 5 (83%) 45 (70%) 0.500
Pathological stage     
 I 23 (33%) 4 (17%) 19 (83%) 0.324
 II 19 (27%) 1 (5%) 18 (95%)  
 III 26 (37%) 1 (4%) 25 (96%)  
 IV 2 (3%) 0 2 (100%)  
COPD 4 (6%) 1 (25%) 3 (75%) 0.227
Hypertension 22 (31%) 1 (5%) 21 (95%) 0.415
Current smoker 40 (57%) 5 (13%) 35 (87%) 0.175
Intraoperative factors     
HALS 28 6 22 0.002
Distance between navel and jejunostomy     
Straight distance (mm) 66 (37–150) 117 (101–130) 63 (37–150) < 0.001**
Vertical distance (mm) 54 (17–135) 107 (93–120) 49 (17–135) < 0.001**
Horizontal distance (mm) 39 (14–60) 48 (40–59) 37 (14–60) 0.020**
Surgical duration (min) 451 (309–613) 409 (347–464) 460 (309–613) 0.015*
Estimated blood loss (mL) 119 (1–1030) 122 (90–150) 114 (1–1030) 0.817**
Length of button (cm) 4.0 (3.0–5.0) 3.5 (3.0–4.0) 4.0 (3.0–5.0) 0.773*
  1. BOFJ, bowel obstruction associated with feeding jejunostomy; BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HALS, hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery
  2. Chi-square test
  3. *Unpaired t test
  4. **Mann–Whitney test
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