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Table 1 Association between ln (diagnostic delay) and demographics, initial symptoms, laboratory findings, and image modalities used

From: Factors contributing to diagnostic delay of Caroli syndrome: a single-center, retrospective study

  N Mean SD P-value
Ln (DD)
 Male 10 0.76 1.74  
 Female 6 0.17 2.20 p = 0.56
aAge of onset of symptoms     p = 0.52
aAge of first clinical visit     p = 0.99
aAge of diagnosis     p = 0.17
bFever 6 0.41 2.31  
 Not fever 10 0.61 1.70 p = 0.84
bAbdominal pain 3 0.63 1.51  
 Not abdominal pain 13 0.52 2.00 p = 0.93
bAbdominal distention 8 0.84 1.39  
 Not abdominal distention 8 0.23 2.32 p = 0.54
 Normal WBC 5 −1.47 1.36  
 Decreased WBC 11 1.45 1.27 p = 0.01
 Normal HGB 5 −0.47 1.57  
 Decreased HGB 11 0.99 1.89 p = 0.16
 Normal PLT 6 −0.92 1.80  
 Decreased PLT 10 1.41 1.34 p = 0.01
 No pancytopenia 6 −0.92 1.80  
 Pancytopenia 10 1.41 1.34 p = 0.01
 Normal PT 11 0.51 2.16  
 Prolonged PT 5 0.59 1.25 p = 0.94
 CT at first hospital visited 8 −0.55 1.76  
 No CT at first hospital visited 8 1.62 1.33 p = 0.02
  1. Initial clinical presentations of gastrointestinal bleeding or fatigue, elevated alanine aminotransferase or bilirubin, decreased albumin, positive antinuclear antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibodies, or anti-mitochondrial antibodies M2 subtype are not analyzed due to the small sample size (n < 3)
  2. Ln Natural logarithm, DD Diagnostic delay, WBC White blood cell, HGB Hemoglobin, PLT Platelet, PT Prothrombin time, CT Computed tomography, SD Standard deviation
  3. a Calculated and tested by Pearson correlation coefficient
  4. b Initial clinical presentations