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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population consisting of 168 CD and 161 UC participants

From: The association between inflammatory potential of diet and disease activity: results from a cross-sectional study in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

   Disease activity CD Disease activity UC
CD UC Remission Mild Moderate Remission Mild Moderate
Subjects, n (%) 168 (51) 161 (49) 123 (73) 27 (16) 18 (11) 108 (67) 38 (24) 15 (9)
Gender, n (%)
 Female 117 (70) 97 (60) 84 (68) 17 (63) 16 (89) 60 (56) 27 (71) 10 (67)
Age (years) 47 ± 16* 51 ± 15* 48 ± 16 46 ± 17 47 ± 14 50 ± 14 54 ± 16 45 ± 16
Age at diagnosis (years) 32 ± 15* 36 ± 15* 33 ± 16 30 ± 14 33 ± 9 35 ± 14 41 ± 17 32 ± 15
BMI (kg/m2) 24.8 ± 4.7 24.9 ± 3.8 24.8 ± 4.4 24.9 ± 5.1 25.0 ± 6.6 24.7 ± 3.6 25.4 ± 3.9 24.8 ± 4.9
Smoking, n (%)
 Never 123 (73) 124 (77) 97 (79)a 17 (63)a, b 9 (50)b 80 (74) 31 (82) 13 (87)
 Current 16 (10) 7 (4) 8 (7)a 6 (22)b 2 (11)a, b 5 (5) 1 (3) 1 (7)
 Former 29 (17) 30 (19) 18 (15)a 4 (15)a, b 7 (39)b 23 (21) 6 (16) 1 (7)
Education levelc, n (%)
 Low 37 (22) 34 (21) 25 (20) 7 (26) 5 (28) 21 (19) 10 (26) 3 (20)
 Middle 52 (31) 48 (30) 38 (31) 5 (19) 9 (50) 33 (31) 8 (21) 7 (47)
 High 79 (47) 79 (49) 60 (49) 15 (56) 4 (22) 54 (50) 20 (53) 5 (33)
Medication use, n (%)
 Mesalazines 28 (17)** 97 (60)** 21 (17) 4 (15) 3 (17) 65 (60) 21 (55) 11 (73)
 Corticosteroids 22 (13) 24 (15) 13 (11) 6 (22) 3 (17) 9 (8)a 10 (26)b 5 (33)b
 Immunosuppressants 70 (42)** 33 (21)** 52 (42) 11 (41) 7 (39) 20 (19) 9 (24) 4 (27)
 Biologicals 58 (35)** 27 (17)** 36 (29) 12 (44) 10 (56) 11 (10)a 9 (24)a, b 7 (47)b
 Other 24 (14)* 11 (7)* 14 (11) 6 (22) 4 (22) 4 (4)a 4 (11)a, b 3 (20)b
 No medication use 34 (20) 30 (19) 29 (24) 4 (15) 1 (6) 24 (22) 6 (16) 0 (0)
Flare-ups in past year, n (%)
 None 92 (55)* 61 (38)* 80 (65)a 7 (26)b 5 (28)b 50 (46)a 10 (26)a, b 1 (7)b
 1–2 flare-ups 55 (33)* 70 (44)* 35 (29) 14 (52) 6 (33) 45 (42) 20 (53) 5 (33)
 3–4 flare-ups 8 (5)* 19 (12)* 2 (2)a 4 (15)b 2 (11)a, b 8 (7)a 4 (11)a 7 (47)b
 More than 4 flare-ups 13 (7) 11 (7) 6 (5)a 2 (7)a, b 5 (28)b 5 (5) 4 (11) 2 (13)
Supplement use, n (%) 74 (44) 68 (42) 54 (44) 11 (41) 9 (50) 39 (36) 21 (55) 8 (53)
Surgery, n (%) 57 (34)** 13 (8)** 40 (33) 8 (30) 9 (50) 6 (6) 6 (16) 1 (7)
Intolerances/allergies, n (%) 62 (37) 44 (27) 40 (33) 13 (48) 9 (50) 23 (21)a 16 (42)b 5 (33)a, b
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD for normally distributed data. Categorical data are presented as n (%). * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.001
  2. Abbreviations: CD Crohn’s disease, UC Ulcerative colitis, BMI Body mass indexa, bgroups with the same superscript letters do not differ significantly after post-hoc analyses using the Bonferroni test (p > 0.05)
  3. cEducation level: no education, primary or lower vocational education and lower general secondary education (low); secondary vocational education and higher general secondary education (middle); higher vocational education and university (high)