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Table 6 Summarization of recent studies of risks of surgical site infection after pancreaticoduodenectomy

From: Predictors of surgical site infection after pancreaticoduodenectomy

Author (year)Type of studyNo. of patientsIncidence of SSI (%)Percent of malignancy (%)Risk factors of surgical site infection
Poluk K. E (2016) [37]Single center retrospective67917.2Pre-operative biliary drainage,
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
Zhang L (2016) [9]Single center retrospective21229a80Pancreatic fistula,
Blood transfusion
Barreto S. G (2015) [7]Single center retrospective2773581Pre-operative biliary stent insertion,
Non-diabetic endocrine co-morbidity.
De Pastena M (2017) [17]Single center retrospective89345.8†Pre-operative biliary drainage
Sugiura T (2012) [8]Single center retrospective4085190Long operative time,
High Body Mass Index,
Pancreatic fistula,
Semi-close suction drain,
Main pancreatic duct < 3 mm,
Abdominal wall fat thickness > 10 mm.
Burkhart R. A (2017) [2]Single center retrospective39419.871.1Pre-operative biliary drainage, neoadjuvant therapy, prior abdominal surgery
Shinkawa H (2018) [10]Single center retrospective10614.2Nutritional risk index,
Pancreatic fistula
Gavazzi F (2016) [35]Single center
18052.386Pre-operative biliary stent,
Cardiac disease, BMI > 25 mg/m2
Okano K (2015) [30]Multi center
414727.190Male sex, age 70 years or more,
Body mass index at least 25 kg/m2,
Other previous malignancy,
Liver disease,
Bile contamination,
Duration of surgery 7 h or longer, Intraoperative blood transfusion,
Soft pancreas
  1. a Overall infectious complication
  2. - Not stated