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Table 1 Patient characteristics and demographic data

From: Predictors of surgical site infection after pancreaticoduodenectomy

SSITotal
(n = 280)
Non-SSI
(n = 190)
SSI
(n = 90)
p value
Age in years, mean ± SD59.98 ± 10.7959.81 ± 10.7060.36 ± 11.010.687
BMI, median (range)22.36 (15.11, 38.95)21.94 (15.11, 38.95)22.60 (16.22, 34.06)0.040
Sex, n (%)
 Male148 (52.86)100 (52.63)48 (53.33)0.913
 Female132 (47.14)90 (47.37)42 (46.67) 
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus81 (28.93)62 (32.63)19 (21.11)0.047
 Hypertension108 (38.57)70 (36.84)38 (42.22)0.388
 Dyslipidemia76 (27.14)56 (29.47)20 (22.22)0.203
 Renal insufficiency7 (2.50)4 (2.11)3 (3.33)0.539
ASA class, n (%), n = 275
 I6 (2.18)3 (1.62)3 (3.33)0.811
 II104 (37.82)69 (37.30)35 (38.89) 
 III156 (56.73)106 (57.30)50 (55.56) 
 IV8 (2.91)6 (3.24)2 (2.22) 
 V(E)1 (0.36)1 (0.54)0 
Smoking, n (%)84 (30.00)56 (29.47)28 (31.11)0.780
Previous biliary intervention, n (%)192 (68.57)119 (62.63)73 (81.11)0.002
WBC, mean ± SD7838 ± 26707953 ± 26657605 ± 26800.321
Platelet × 103, median (range)300 (96, 715)302 (96, 715)124 (140, 548)0.068
Hb in g/dL, median (range)12 (3, 30.2)12 (3, 30.2)2.2 (8.5, 23.3)0.349
BUN in mg/dL, median (range)13 (4, 57)13 (4, 57)7 (5, 29)0.712
Creatinine in mg/dL, median (range)0.8 (0.3, 12)0.8 (0.3, 11)0.26 (0.33, 12)0.734
Total bilirubin in mg/d/L, median (range)1.6 (0.1, 35)1.75 (0.2, 35)3.4 (0.1, 30.3)0.341
Albumin in g/L, mean ± SD34.35 ± 5.3234.55 ± 5.6533.94 ± 4.570.377
Pre-operative cholangitis, n(%)18 (6.43)6 (3.16)12 (13.33)0.001
Operative time in min, median (range)475 (240, 900)435 (240, 900)480 (240, 840)0.078
Blood loss in ml, median (range)800 (100, 13,000)800 (100, 8000)800 (150, 13,000)0.757
Complications, n (%)
 Pancreatic fistula
  No137 (48.93)114 (60.00)23 (25.56)0.000
  Yes143 (51.07)76 (40.00)67 (74.44) 
  Bile leakage20 (7.14)10 (5.26)10 (11.11)0.076
  Delayed gastric emptying29 (10.36)14 (7.37)15 (16.67)0.017
  Chyle leakage13 (4.64)6 (3.16)7 (7.78)0.125
Duration of drain placement (day), median (rang) n = 23813 (2, 266)10 (2, 94)23 (2, 266)0.000
LOH in days, median (range)16 (5, 320)14 (5, 87)28 (8, 320)0.000
 Diagnosis, n (%)
  Benign73 (26.07)50 (26.32)23 (25.56)0.892
  Malignant207 (73.93)140 (73.68)67 (74.44) 
  1. SSI Surgical site infection, SD Standard deviation, BMI Body mass index, WBC White blood cell count, Hb Hemoglobin, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, LOH Length of hospital stay