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Table 3 Predictors of overall survival in the t1 period (from DEB-TACE-1 assessment) including pre and post-procedure variables (n = 216) based on multivariate Cox regression

From: The development of early ascites is associated with shorter overall survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with drug-eluting embolic chemoembolization

T1  Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
VariableCategoriesn = 216overall survival, monthsp-valueHRHR, 95% CIp-value
medianmedian, 95% CI
Number nodules<  31652723.2–30.80.07 
>  3512418.4–26.9
Main nodule sizeb, mm<  36.51103026.5–33.50.0050.590.45–0.840.003
>  36.51032218.9–25.030.650.46–0.920.013
EVNo723022.8–37.20.03   
Yes1442622.8–29.2
CSPHNo613024.9–35.10.05   
Yes1532521.4–28.6
GenderFemale373121.5–40.50.14   
Male1792723.8–30.1
Albumin preTACEa(g/L)<  401102420.3–27.70.20.610.4–0.930.023
>  40982824.1–31.8
AP preTACEa(IU/L)<  1081053228.01–35.9< 0.0010.650.44–0.940.02
>  1081042420.7–27.20.560..39–0.790.001
0.540.38–0.760.001
0.590.43–0.80.001
AFP preTACEa(ng/mL)<  12.81053025.7–34.20.0090.660.46–0.940.002
<  12.81042319.3–26.70.70.49–0.980.04
Ascites preTACENo1982825.3–30.60.060.390.19–0.760.006
Yes182016.1–23.9
Doxorubicin dosea (mg)<  90952925.4–32.50.03   
>  90942420.5–27.6
CBCTNo1872723.7–30.30.25   
Yes292419.4–28.6
Particle size, μm300–5001352623.2–28.80.53   
100–300812923.6–34.4
Post-TACE-1 eventsNo1432926.3–31.60.005   
Yes732216.3–27.7
Hb post-TACE-1 a (g/dL)<  13.41092620.2–31.80.83   
>  13.4982824.3–31.7
Platelets post-TACE-1a ×10^9/L<  108.51032621.4–30.60.66   
>  108.51032722.4–31.5
Platelets post-TACE-1 × 10^9/L< 100872621.3–30.70.75   
> 1001192722.7–31.2
Albumin post-TACE-1a(g/dL)<  381062118.7–23.3< 0.0012.51.6–3.9< 0.001
>  381023528.8–41.2
Albumin pos-TACE 1 g/dL<  35542218.5–25.50.0011.51.1–2.20.02
> 351543026.9–33.1
∆ Albumin g/dL< 01382521.7–28.30.07   
0223727.5–46.5
> 0402924.8–33.1
AFP post-TACE 1a ng/mL<  8.41053025.4–34.50.025   
>  8.41042420.5–27.5
AFP post-TACE 1 ng/mL< 1001832926.4–31.6< 0.0010.650.45–0.930.02
> 10026128.3–15.70.670.47–0.970.03
AFP post-TACE 1 ng/mL< 2001922926.5–31.50.005   
> 200171149.9–18.03   
AFP post-TACE 1 ng/mL< 4001592926.5–31.5< 0.001   
> 40013127.3–16.7   
∆ AFP ng/mL< 01392824.7–31.30.23   
06145.6–22.4   
> 0572722.1–31.8   
Bilirubin post-TACE 1a mg/dL<  11403025.4–34.50.01   
>  1712420.6–27.4
Bilirubin pos. TACE 1 mg/dL<  21942825.3–30.70.03   
> 217155.6–24.4   
∆ Bilirubin mg/dL< 0742721.4–32.60.003   
0623426.1–41.9   
> 0672320.1–25.9   
AST post-TACE 1a IU/L<  471042722.5–31.50.67   
>  471002924.7–33.2   
ALT post-TACE 1a IU/L<  351042622.7–29.20.5   
>  351032925.8–32.2   
GGT post-TACE 1a IU/L<  1331052921.7–36.30.23   
>  1331002724.1–29.8   
AP post-TACE 1a IU/L<  1281023328.3–37.6< 0.001   
>  1281022011.6–28.3
∆ AP post-TACE 1 IU/L< 0573023.7–36.30.66   
02  
> 01392723.8–30.2
Creatinine post-TACE 1a mg/dL< 0.791042824.2–31.80.68   
>  0.791012721.4–32.5
Sodium post-TACE 1a mEq/L<  1401052622.5–29.50.28   
>  1401022924.6–33.4
PT post-TACE 1a %<  821062722.9–31.10.21   
>  821022822.8–33.1
Ascites post-TACE 1No1892825.5–30.5< 0.0010.410.25–0.70.001
Yes27178.6–25.40.380.24–0.63< 0.001
0.430.27–0.68< 0.001
0.370.23–0.58< 0.001
Progressive disease to TACE-1 (mRECIST)No1762825.5–30.50.03   
Yes352320.8–25.2
RECISTCR552820.8–35.1< 0.001   
PR972926.1–31.8
SD242618.04–33.9
PD352320.1–25.2
Not available520–4.2
Objective responseNo642320.2–25.80.010.670.46–0.980.04
Yes1522926.3–31.70.680.47–0.990.048
  1. The model 4 uses only three variables, all of them post-TACE, with significant thresholds in two variables (albumin 35 g/L, AFP 100 ng/mL) and appearance of ascites
  2. CI Confidence interval, HR Hazard ratio, TACE Transarterial chemoembolization, BCLC Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer, CSPH Clinically significant portal hypertension., AFP Alpha-fetoprotein, Bil Bilirubin, Alb Albumin, AP Alkaline phosphatase, Hb Hemoglobin, CBCT Cone-beam computed tomography, EV Esophageal varices. a The median values were used as a cut-off for continuous variables. b Tumor size estimated by AUROC. ∆ Bil, ∆ AP, ∆ AFP, and ∆ alb are calculated by the subtraction of pre-TACE from post-TACE variables
  3. In the T1 period multivariate analysis includes basal (preTACE-1) variables statistically significant and those considered clinically relevant, together with significant variables of T1 period. Five models have been developed
  4. Model 1: basal albumin < 40 g/L (median value), basal AP < 108 IU/L (median value), ascites preTACE, albumin posTACE < 38 g/L (median value) and ascites posTACE
  5. Model 2: tumor size < 36.5 mm (cut-off estimated by AUROC), basal AFP < 12.8 ng/mL (median value), basal AP < 108 IU/L (median value) and objective response
  6. Model 3: tumor size < 36.5 mm (estimated by AUROC), basal AFP < 12.8 ng/mL (median value), basal AP < 108 IU/L (median value), objective response and ascites posTACE
  7. Model 4: albumine postTACE < 35 g/L (arbitrary), AFP < 100 ng/mL postTACE (arbitrary) and ascites posTACE
  8. Model 5: basal AP < 108 IU/L (median), AFP < 100 ng/mL postTACE (arbitrary) and ascites posTACE