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Table 2 The prevalence and likelihood of constipation in different demographic groups and dietary factors

From: The influence of demographic characteristics on constipation symptoms: a detailed overview

Prevalence of constipationLikelihood of constipation
Univariate logistic regressionMultivariate logistic regression
Demographic features%95% CIp valueOdds ratio (95% CI)p valueOdds ratio (95% CI)p value
Overall15.613.2–18.0     
Sex  < 0.001**    
 Men10.67.6–13.6 Reference Reference 
 Women19.716.2–23.3 2.07 (1.40–3.04)< 0.001**2.08 (1.39–3.10)< 0.001**
Age groups  < 0.001**    
 18–38 years23.518.6–28.3 Reference Reference 
 39–54 years13.39.5–17.2 0.50 (0.33–0.77)0.002**0.49 (0.31–0.77)0.002**
 55–80 years9.96.4–13.3 0.36 (0.22–0.57)< 0.001**0.38 (0.23–0.64)< 0.001**
Educational level  0.13    
 Primary11.76.8–16.6 Reference Reference 
 Secondary14.811.1–18.5 1.31 (0.76–2.27)0.331.32 (0.74–2.37)0.35
 Tertiary18.314.2–22.3 1.69 (0.98–2.89)0.061.63 (0.90–2.94)0.11
Living environment  0.21    
 Rural13.59.7–17.3 Reference   
 Urban16.713.7–19.8 1.28 (0.87–1.90)0.21  
Body mass index  0.21    
 Underweight12.5−1.8–26.8 0.70 (0.21–2.43)0.580.58 (0.16–2.04)0.40
 Normal weight16.913.3–20.5 Reference Reference 
 Overweight12.28.4–15.9 0.68 (0.44–1.06)0.090.96 (0.60–1.52)0.85
 Obese18.912.7–25.0 1.15 (0.72–1.84)0.571.72 (1.02–2.90)0.04*
Dietary factors       
 Water intake < 1.5 L/day21.516.3–26.60.003**a1.78 (1.22–2.60) a0.003**1.70 (1.14–2.53)a0.01*
 Vegetables < 3 spoons/day22.516.9–27.90.001**a1.88 (1.28–2.77) a0.001**1.53 (1.02–2.30)a0.04*
 Fruits < 2 pieces/day16.713.3–20.10.33a1.20 (0.83–1.73) a0.33  
 Whole grain bread < 3 slices/day17.813.3–22.10.23a1.26 (0.87–1.84)a0.23  
  1. * Statistical significance of p < 0.05
  2. ** Statistical significance of p < 0.005
  3. a The reference category is more than the indicated quantity of water, vegetables, fruits and bread respectively